Ntizongere ku baho ukundi, Twige Twiyibutse , Tuyirwanye: Ubusobanuro bwa Jenoside

IGISOBANURO CYA JENOSIDE N’ITEGURWA RYAYO

1. Jenoside ni iki?

Dukurikije igitabo cya Samuel Totten and Paul R. Bartrop (ed), The Genocide Studies Reader 11, Ijambo « Jenoside » ryahanzwe n’umunyamategeko w’umuyahudi wabaga muri Pologne, Raphaël LEMKIN ashingiye ku ijambo ry’ikigereki genos rivuga ubwoko cyangwa inkomoko, hamwe n’iry’ikilatini cãedere risobanura kwica.

Raphael Lemkin ahanga iri jambo yashakaga kwerekana itandukaniro riri hagati ya jenoside n’ibindi byaha ndengakamere byibasira inyoko muntu (Crimes contre l’humanité cyangwa Crimes against humanity).

Icyi cyaha gishingiye ku mugambi wo kurimbura burundu abantu bo mu bwoko, bo mu idini cyangwa batuye ahantu runaka. Ntabwo abantu barimburwa baba bazize y’uko bari ku rugamba cyangwa ngo bahorwe ibindi byaha. Ahubwo bazira uko bavutse. Mu by’ukuri, abakora Jenoside ni bo bashyiraho ibiranga abo bashaka kurimbura.

Amasezerano y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Yerekeye Gukumira no Guhana Icyaha cya jenoside [(UN Convention on the and Punishment Prevention of the Crime of Genocide (UNCG)] yemejwe na ONU tariki ya 9/12/1948, ashyirwa mu bikorwa tariki ya 12/1/1951, amaze kwemezwa n’ibihugu byose bigize uwo muryango, yatanze igisobanuro cy’icyaha cya jenoside.Yagize ati « Muri aya masezerano, jenoside bivuga kimwe muri ibi bikorwa bikurikira bikoranywe umugambi wo kurimbura bose cyangwa igice cy’abantu bahuriye ku bwenegihugu (national), ubwoko (ethnical), ibara ry’uruhu (racial), idini:

Ibyo bikorwa ni ibi :

1. Kwica abantu b’itsinda rimwe (group)

2. Gukomeretsa bikabije imibiri cyangwa ibitekerezo by’abantu b’itsinda rimwe (group).

3.Gushyira abantu b’itsinda rimwe mu buzima bubi (conditions) ubigendereye bwatuma ugamije ko barimbuka bose cyangwa igice.

4. Gushyiraho uburyo bubuza iryo tsinda kubyara

5. Kwambura iri tsinda abana babo bagahabwa irindi ridafite aho bahuriye

Ibivugwa muri aya masezerano ni na byo biteganywa n’ingingo ya 114 y’Itegeko Ngenga № 01/2012/OL ryo kuwa 02/05/2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana kubera ko Ibihugu byasinye aya masezerano bifite inshingano yo gushyiraho amategeko yabyo ahana iki cyaha.

Icyitonderwa:

Kugira ngo Jenoside ishoboke igomba kuba ishyigikiwe na Leta. Leta igira umugambi n’ubushake bisesuye (intention) byo gutsemba icyo gice cy’abaturage bayo kandi koko ikabishyira mu bikorwa. Leta itegura Jenoside ibikorera gahunda kandi ikayigeraho. Uwicwa ntazira icyo yakoze, azira gusa ko ari umwe mu bagize igice cy’abo baturage bagomba gutsembatsembwa. Jenoside igira umurongo mugari igenderaho. Niwo uhuza abasangiye icyerekezokimwe cyo gukora Jenoside. Uwo murongo mugari niwo bita ingengabitekerezoya Jenoside. Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside ikorerwa propaganda, igasakara mu bantu benshi, ikagira ingufu maze abantu bakayigenderaho bakemera gukora Jenoside.

Jenoside yose iba ifite uko itegurwa (organisation): ntagipfa kwikora. Ibyo bita ko bisa n’uburakari bw’abaturage biba bifite ibyabibanjirije, byigishijwe, kandi byateguwe neza. Kandi nibyo bifashisha mu gukora Jenoside.

2.3. Itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside

Kugirango Jenoside ishyirwe mu bikorwa, umushakashatsi kuri Jenoside Gregory Stanton yagaragaje ko itegurwa ryayo rigaragarira mu bikurikirana (10 stages).

1. Mbere ya byose, abategura Jenoside batandukanya abaturage, bakabacamo íbice bibiri («Us» and «Them ») bagendeye ku bwenegihugu, ubwoko, inkomoko cyangwa imyemerere.Muri iki gikorwa, abategura jenoside bagerageza kumvisha abaturage kobyiciro icumi kubacamo íbice ntacyo bitwaye kandi ko nta ngaruka bifite. Ariko mu byukuri bo baba bazi impamvu yabyo n’icyo bashaka kuzageraho.

2. Nyuma yo gucamo abaturage íbice, buri tsinda rihabwa izina ryihariye, rikagenderwaho babatandukanya n’abandi badahuje itsinda. Aha niho mu Rwanda abanyarwanda bagabanijwemo Abahutu n’Abatutsi, Aba Nazi n’Abayahudi mu Budage n’ahandi. Ibi bigashimangirwa n’inyigisho z’urwango zirushaho gutandukanya amatsinda yombi, kugeza ubwo itsinda ryibasiwe rifatwa nk’umwanzi mu muryango ribarizwamo.

3. Kwima bamwe uburenganzira (Discrimination): nko mu Rwanda, guheza abatutsi mu mirimo ya Leta no mu mashuri. Kwima impunzi uburenganzira bwazo bwo gutaha mu gihugu ngo nta mwanya uhari, ngo ikirahure kiruzuye.

4. Nyuma yo gutandukanya amatsinda no kuyaha amazina yihariye kuri buri tsinda, itsinda ryibasiwe ritangira kwamburwa ubumuntu, abarigizebakagereranywa n’ibikoko. Aha niho mu Rwanda Abatutsi batangiye kwitwainyenzi, inzoka,

5. Ku rwego rwa kane, abategura jenoside barangwa n’ibikorwa bitandukanye bitegura ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo. Hategurwa hakanigishwa abazayikora, hagashakwa ibikoresho bizifashishwa, n’ibindi. Ni muri uru rwego mu Rwanda hashyizweho imitwe y’interahamwe, impuzamugambi,… bakigishwa kwikiza umwanzi; bakagura ibikoresho bitandukanye bizifashishwa(imipanga, amahiri….), etc.»

6. Ku rwego rwa gatanu, abategura Jenoside batangira kwibasira abatagira aho babogamije, batabyumva kimwe nabo; kugirango bitazababuza gushyira mu bikorwa umugambi wabo wa Jenoside.

7. Ku Rwego rwa gatandatu, abagomba kwicwa bashyirwa ahagaragara, hagakorwa urutonde (listes).

8. Nyuma yo gukora urutonde rw’abagomba kwicwa, hakurikiraho kubica hagamijwe kumaraho abagize itsinda runaka.

9. Gutoteza abo bashaka gukorera jenoside (persecution): Mu Rwanda abatutsi baratotezwaga, bakicwa hato na hato kandi bazira ubusa.

10. Nyuma yo gushyira mu bikorwa jenoside, iteka abayikoze ntibaba bemera ibyaha bakoze. Nibwo usanga barangwa no guhakana ibyabaye, bagahisha ukuri, bakibasira abatangabuhamya n’ibindi byose bagamije kuburizamo ibimenyetso bituma umugambi wabo umenyekana n’uburyo wateguwe.

Mu byukuri, tugendeye kuri jenoside zabaye hirya no hino ku isi, jenoside yose irategurwa, ntipfa kubaho. Jenoside igira umurongo mugari igenderaho. Niwo uhuza abasangiye icyerekezo kimwe cyo gukora Jenoside. Uwo murongo mugari niwo bita ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside

Ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside isakazwa mu bantu benshi, ikagira ingufu maze abantu bakayigenderaho bakemera gukora Jenoside.

2. Itandukaniro rya Jenoside n’intambara

Intego yabyo si imwe: Intambara iba igamije gutsinda maze

abatsinzwe bakayoboka abatsinze. Jenoside ntiba igamije gutsinda ngo abatsinzwe bayoboke ababatsinze, ahubwo iba igamije kurimbura abo yibasiye ntihasigare n’umwe.

Intambara igira amategeko ayigenga, utayubahirije akaba yabihanirwa.

Ushyize intwaro hasi agasaba imbabazi arazihabwa, ntiyicwa. Nta mategeko agenga Jenoside, abayikora ntakibakoma imbere. Nta n’ubwo batanga imbabazi.

Intambara igira imfungwa z’intambara, Jenoside iba igamije kumaraho itsinda runaka, ntigira imfungwa. Intambara ikorwa n’ingabo ntihajyamo abaturage basanzwe. Jenoside yo siko biri kuko nko mu Rwanda yakozwe n’abasirikare ndetse n’abaturage basanzwe batagira ingano.

Mu ntambara birabujijwe kwibasira abaturage muri rusange, by’umwihariko abana, abagore, abasaza, abarwayi, abamugaye n’umwe mu barwana umanitse amaboko n’ubwo hari abagwa mu ntambara bwose.

Jenoside yibasira abagize itsinda runaka igamije kubamaraho bose, ntawe isize inyuma.

Intambara igira ingaruka mbi n’inziza ariko Jenoside ingaruka zayo zose ni mbi gusa.

3. Itandukaniro rya jenoside n’ibindi byaha

by’ubwicanyi

Habaho ubwicanyi butandukanye: hari ububa bugamije kwihorera, ubugamije guhana, hari ubuterwa n’uburakari busanzwe, urugomo n’ibindi. Ubwicanyi nk’ubwo ntibukorerwa gahunda na Leta ngo butegurwe ngo ishishikarize igice kimwe cy’abaturage bayo kuzakorera ubwo bwicanyi ikindi gice cy’abaturage bayo. Ubwicanyi busanzwe ntibuba bugamije gutsemba igice cy’abaturage bo mu mu bundi bwoko bwibasiwe na Leta.

Jenoside itandukanye n’ibindi byaha by’ubugome nk’ibyaha by’intambara n’ibindi byaha byibasira inyokomuntu, kuko byo biba bikomoka kuri iyo ntambara, mu gihe abicwa muri Jenoside bo baba bazira uko baremwe gusa.

Jenoside iteka ishingira ku ivangura ritegurwa rikanashyirwa mu nzego, rigahabwa intebe, rikagirwa umurongongenderwaho w’Igihugu.

4. Ubudasaza bw’ikurikiranacyaha cya jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu n’ibyaha by’intambara

Nyuma yo gutandukanya icyaha cya jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye Inyokomuntu n’ibyaha by’intambara,twabibutsaga ko ikurikiranacyaha ry’ibi byaha, ibi bikaba biteganywa n’ingingo y’134 y’Itegeko Ngenga twavuze haruguru rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana. Iyi ngingo iteganya ko “ikurikirana ry’icyaha cya jenoside, ibyaha byibasiye inyokomuntu, n’ibyaha by’intambara n’ibihano byatanzwe kuri ibyo byaha ntibisaza”.

5. Itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi n’umwihariko wayo

5.1. Uko yateguwe ikanashyirwa mu bikorwa

1. Guca abanyarwanda mo ibice (Classification): Abahutu n’abatutsi

– (kwandika Hutu/Tutsi mu Ndangamuntu, kwigisha ko

badakomoka hamwe, kubasumbanya etc.);

2. Kubaha ibibaranga (Symbolisation) – Abahutu n’abatutsi. Abatutsi ni ba mazuru, ba runyunyusi barangwa n’ubugome, ubuhake, uburyarya, etc.

3. Kubambura ubumuntu (Deshumanisation) – (Kwita Abatutsi

inzoka, Inyenzi, kuvuga ko bafite imirizo, Amatwi atendera,

gutanga uburenganzira bwo kwica, guhemba abishe etc).

4. Kwishyira hamwe kw’abicanyi (Organization) – Hutu power,

Interahamwe, gushyiraho inzego z’abicanyi, gukwiza ibikoresho,

ubukangurambaga bw’abicanyi, gukora lisiti z’abicwa no

kuzitangaza etc.

5. Gutanya abagomba kwicwa n’abazabica (Polarisation) – umwanzi

wacu ni umwe! (Umututsi). Ref. “Amategeko 10 y’Abahutu ya Kangura N 0 6, Ukwakira 1990″ 4 )

6. Kwitegura (Preparation) – Amaradiyo RTLM, Lisiti z’ibyitso,

n’izabagomba kwicwa, gutegura ingabo, gutoza imitwe y’abicanyi

no kuyimara ubwoba, kugerageza ubwicanyi, kuvuga ko hagiye

kuba akantu: mwitegure!, etc.

7. Gutsemba (Extermination) – Abazavuka bazabaze uko Umututsi

yasaga!

8. Guhakana Jenoside. (Denial /Négationisme/ Révisionisme)-Double

Jenoside, Urupfu rw’umubyeyi Habyarimana, kwitabara etc.

5. 2. Ibindi byerekana ko Jenoside yateguwe

Hashyizweho imitwe y’abicanyi:

Réseau zero : Agatsiko k’abicanyi bo hejuru muri politiki kakoreraga mu ibanga.

• Amasasu : Abasirikare bakuru barwanyaga amasezerano ya Arusha

• Interahamwe (MRND)

• Impuzamugambi (CDR)

• Abakombozi (PSD Power) n’abandi1/4Hatanzwe intwaro, zikwirakwizwa n’abayobozi mu baturage hagamijwe gutsemba Abatutsi ;

Hashyizweho bariyeri nyinshi hagamijwe kubuza Abatutsi guhunga,

Hakoreshejwe amayeri yo guhuriza (gukusanyiriza) Abatutsi hamwe mu bigo no mu masengero kugira ngo biborohere kubica ;
Habaye ubwicanyi bunyuranye imbere ya 1994, buyobowe n’abayobozi ba gisiviri n’abagisirikare: I Kibirira mu 1990, i Murambi mu 1990, mu Mutara mu 1990, mu Bigogwe mu 1991, i Nasho mu 1990-1991, mu Bugesera mu 1992, ku Kibuye mu 1992, ku Gisenyi mu 1993, …

5.3. Umwihariko wa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda

Abantu benshi cyane bishwe mu gihe gito cyane (hishwe abagera kuri 1,070,014 mu minsi 100 gusa) bigaragazwa na MINALOC mu bushakashatsi bwayo bwo muri 2002. Nyuma y’icyo gihe, habonetse indi mibiri myinshi haba mu makuru yatanzwe mu manza za Gacaca cyangwa se ayatanzwe n’abantu ku giti cyabo n’indi mibiri yagiye iboneka mu bundi buryo nk’igihe cy’ikorwa ry’imihanda n’izindi nyubako. Bigaragaza ko Jenoside yahitanye Abatutsi barenga miliyoni.

Abaturage basanzwe kandi benshi cyane bishe bagenzibabo baturanye ku misozi, basangiraga, basenganaga, bashyingiranaga n’ibindi… Abicwaga n’abicaga bari bahuje umuco n’ururimi.

Abaturage bishe bari bafitanye isano rya hafi.

Hakoreshejwe intwaro za gakondo zitica vuba nk’ubuhiri, ubufuni etc.. hagamijwe gushinyagurira abicwaga.

Hakoreshejwe ubugome bukabije (Kwicukurira no kwihamba, gukubita abana ku nkuta, kwanduza SIDA, kurya abantu no kunywa amaraso, etc).

Inzego zose za Leta, amadini n’imiryango inyuranye zagize uruhare mu bwicanyi.

LONI, Amahanga n’Imiryango mpuzamahanga iharanirauburenganzira bwa muntu batereranye u Rwanda kandi bahari.

5.4 Ihanwa ry’icyaha cya Jenoside

Ingingo y’115 ya 114 y’Itegeko Ngenga № 01/2012/OL/ryo kuwa 02/05/2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana iteganya ko”umuntu wese ukoze haba mu gihe gisanzwe cyangwa mu gihe cy’intambara, icyaha cya jenoside nk’uko giteganywa mu ngingo ibanziriza iyi, ahanishwa igihano cya burundu y’umwihariko”.

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