Ubutasi bwa Pegasus niki kandi nigute bwiba terefone?

Porogaramu ya NSO Group urashobora kwandika , ikoporora ubutumwa bwawe kandi ikagufata rwihishwa , igice gikomeye cy’ ibikoresho by’ubutasi byigeze bikorwa – rwose nisosiyete yigenga. Iyo imaze kwangiriza inzira kuri terefone yawe, utabizi, irashobora kuyihindura igikoresho cyo kugenzura amasaha 24. Irashobora gukoporora ubutumwa wohereje cyangwa wakiriye, gusarura amafoto yawe no kwandika umuhamagaro wawe. Irashobora kugufata rwihishwa ukoresheje kamera ya terefone yawe, cyangwa igakora mikoro kugirango wandike ibiganiro byawe. Irashobora kwerekana neza aho uri, aho wagiye, nuwo mwahuye.

Pegasus ni porogaramu ya hacking – cyangwa spyware – yatunganijwe, igurishwa kandi ihabwa uburenganzira na guverinoma ku isi yose na sosiyete yo muri Isiraheli NSO Group. Ifite ubushobozi bwo kwanduza miliyari za terefone zikoresha sisitemu y’imikorere ya iOS cyangwa Android.

Impapuro za mbere za Pegasus zavumbuwe, zafashwe n’abashakashatsi mu 2016, terefone zanduye binyuze mu cyo bita amacumu – ubutumwa bugufi cyangwa imeri zishuka intego yo gukanda ku murongo mubi.

Niki kiri mumibare yumushinga wa Pegasus?

Kuva icyo gihe ariko, ubushobozi bwibitero bya NSO bwarushijeho gutera imbere. Indwara ya Pegasus irashobora kugerwaho binyuze mubitero byitwa “zero-kanda”, bidasaba imikoranire iyo ari yo yose na nyiri terefone kugirango ubigereho. Aba bazakoresha kenshi intege nke za “zero-day”, zikaba ari inenge cyangwa amakosa muri sisitemu y’imikorere uwakoze telefone igendanwa ataramenya bityo akaba atarashoboye gukosora.

Muri 2019 WhatsApp yerekanye ko software ya NSO yakoreshejwe mu kohereza malware kuri terefone zirenga 1.400 ukoresheje intege nke zumunsi. Mugushira gusa guhamagara WhatsApp kubikoresho bigenewe, kode mbi ya Pegasus irashobora gushirwa kuri terefone, nubwo intego itigeze yitaba umuhamagaro. Vuba aha NSO yatangiye gukoresha intege nke muri software ya Message ya Apple, itanga uburyo bwo gusubira inyuma kuri miliyoni amagana ya iphone. Apple ivuga ko ikomeje kuvugurura software zayo kugirango ikumire ibitero nkibi.

Gutahura tekinike ya Pegasus, n’uburyo bwo kubona imirongo igaragara isiga kuri terefone nyuma yo kwandura neza, byatejwe imbere n’ubushakashatsi bwa kozwe na Claudio Guarnieri uyobora Laboratwari ishinzwe umutekano i Amnesty International i Berlin.

Guarnieri yagize ati: “Ibintu biragenda bigorana cyane kugira ngo intego zimenyekane.”, Yasobanuye ko abakiriya ba NSO baretse ahanini ubutumwa bugufi bwakekwa kugira ngo bagabweho ibitero bitagaragara.

Ku masosiyete nka NSO, gukoresha software iba yashyizwe mubikoresho bitemewe, nka iMessage, cyangwa ikoreshwa cyane, nka WhatsApp, irashimishije cyane, kuko yongera cyane umubare wa terefone zigendanwa Pegasus ashobora gutera neza.

Nkumufatanyabikorwa wa tekiniki wumushinga wa Pegasus, ihuriro mpuzamahanga ryimiryango y’ibitangazamakuru harimo na The Guardian, laboratoire ya Amnesty yavumbuye ibimenyetso byibitero byatsinzwe nabakiriya ba Pegasus kuri iphone ikoresha verisiyo igezweho ya iOS ya Apple. Ibyo bitero byakozwe vuba aha muri Nyakanga 2021.

Isesengura ry’ubucamanza kuri terefone z’abahohotewe ryagaragaje kandi ibimenyetso byerekana ko NSO idahwema gushakisha intege nke zishobora kuba zaragutse no ku zindi porogaramu zisanzwe. Mu manza zimwe na zimwe zasesenguwe na Guarnieri n’itsinda rye, urujya n’uruza rwihariye rujyanye n’amafoto ya Apple na porogaramu za Muzika rushobora kugaragara mu gihe cyanduye, byerekana ko NSO ishobora kuba yaratangiye gukoresha intege nke nshya.

Iyo ibitero byo gutera amacumu cyangwa ibitero bya zeru bigenda neza, Pegasus irashobora kandi gushyirwaho hejuru ya transceiver idafite umugozi uri hafi yintego, cyangwa, nkurikije agatabo ka NSO, gashizweho intoki gusa niba umukozi ashobora kwiba terefone yintego.

Iyo Pegasus imaze gushyirwaho kuri terefone, irashobora gusarura byinshi cyangwa bike amakuru yose cyangwa gukuramo dosiye iyo ari yo yose. Ubutumwa bugufi, ibitabo bya aderesi, guhamagara amateka, kalendari, imeri n’amateka yo kureba kuri interineti byose birashobora gusohora.

Guarnieri yagize ati: “Iyo iPhone ibangamiwe, bikorwa mu buryo butuma uwagabye igitero abona uburenganzira bwitwa umuzi, cyangwa uburenganzira bwo kuyobora, ku gikoresho”. “Pegasus irashobora gukora ibirenze ibyo nyir’igikoresho ashobora gukora.”

Abunganira NSO bavuze ko raporo ya tekinike ya Amnesty International yari ikekwa, isobanura ko ari “icyegeranyo cy’ibitekerezo bidafite ishingiro”. Icyakora, ntibigeze impaka na kimwe mu bisubizo byihariye cyangwa imyanzuro.

NSO yashyize imbaraga nyinshi mugukora software yayo kugorana kumenya kandi indwara ya Pegasus iragoye kuyimenya. Abashakashatsi bashinzwe umutekano bakeka ko verisiyo ya Pegasus iheruka kuba gusa muri terefone yibuka by’agateganyo, aho kuba disiki yayo, bivuze ko iyo terefone imaze gukoreshwa hafi ya yose ya software irashira.

Imwe mu mbogamizi zikomeye Pegasus agaragariza abanyamakuru n’abaharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu ni uko porogaramu ikoresha intege nke zitavumbuwe, bivuze ko n’umukoresha wa terefone igendanwa yita cyane ku mutekano adashobora gukumira igitero.

Guarnieri yagize ati: “Iki ni ikibazo kibazwa cyane igihe cyose dukorana n’ubucamanza n’umuntu: ‘Nakora iki kugira ngo ibi bitazongera kubaho?” “Igisubizo nyacyo cy’inyangamugayo nta cyo.”

Inkuru ya Nshimiyimana Emmanuel/MUHABURA.RW

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