Niba Igihugu cy’Ubufaransa gihakana Uruhare rwacyo Muri Jenoside ya korewe Abatutsi Intwaro z’inkazi z’ Abafaransa bazanye muri Operation Turquoise zari iziki?

Ibya Abafaransa muri Zone Turquoise bisa n’ibya wa wundi ugusanganira afite indabo mu kaboko k’ibumoso, ak’ibiryo yahishe inyuma gacigatiye inyundo; wagira ngo urangamiye iyo mpano ugashiduka utazi ikigukubise.

Hemezwa Operation Turquoise ku munsi nk’uyu tariki ya 22 Kamena, icyagaragajwe nk’impamvu yayo yari ibikorwa by’ubutabazi ku bari mu kaga. Iyo uvuze ibikorwa by’ubutabazi, uba uvuga gutanga za polici n’ibisuguti bya kompagiti ku bafite inzara, ubuvuzi bw’ibanze ku bakomeretse, by’akarusho hakabaho gutambamira abicanyi ngo badakomeza gukora ibara.

Abafaransa rero muri Zone Turquoise aho kwitwaza ibyo tuvuze haruguru, bazanye intwara za karahabutaka bisa naho biteguye kurwana inkundura. Ibaze nawe gutabara witwaje indege z’intambara zirenga 30 abasirikare 2500, kandi byari bizwi ko icyo gihugu cyari gifitanye umubano mwiza na leta yari iriho yaba iy’abatazi n’iyari yarayibanjirije zarimo zica Abatutsi uruhondogo.

Hari byinshi wakwibaza kuri izo ntwaro n’uwo mubare w’abasirikare ndetse n’intambara y’inkundura byasaga naho biteguye kurwana. Ese koko izi ntwaro zari zigenewe gutabara Abatutsi bari mu kaga bicwa umusubirizo na leta yagendanaga akaboko ku kandi n’u Bufaransa, cyangwa niba hari undi mugambi udasanzwe wari ubyihishe inyuma?

Tariki 22 Kamena mu 1994, Umuryango w’Abibumbye, ubisabwe n’u Bufaransa, wafashe umwanzuro No 929 wemerera u Bufaransa kohereza ingabo zabwo mu Rwanda muri “Operation Turquoise”.

Nyuma y’imyaka 22 yose, u Bufaransa bwanze kugaragaza no kwemera uruhare rwabwo muri jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, nyamara ibimenyetso n’ubuhamya bwa bamwe mu bafaransa ubwabo, byerekana ko “Operation Turquoise” yari igamije kurwanya no guhashya Inkotanyi, gufata Kigali no gusubiza ubutegetsi Guverinoma yakoraga jenoside.

Capitaine Guillaume Ancel wanditse igitabo “Vents sombres sur le lac Kivu”, yari umwe mu basirikare b’Abafaransa muri “Operation Turquoise”, yemeza ko yahagurutse mu Bufaransa yahawe amabwiriza yo gutegura igitero kigamije gufata Umujyi wa Kigali, bagasubiza ubutegetsi Guverinoma y’abatabazi.

Cyakora ngo bakigera mu Rwanda bahawe andi mabwiriza yo guhagarika Inkotanyi kugirango zidafata igihugu cyose. Avuga kandi ko aho ingabo za FAR zitsindiwe zikajya muri Zaire, u Bufaransa bwazoherereje intwaro nyinshi kugirango zishobore kugaruka gukomeza jenoside no kwisubiza ubutegetsi.

Gutabara abatutsi bicwaga ntabwo byigeze biba muri gahunda ya Turquoise n’ubwo tariki ya 30 Kamena 1994 batabaye abatutsi bake bari basigaye muri Bisesero.

Abatabaye kandi nabo ubwabo bivugira ko babikoze ku bwende bwabo ndetse barenze ku mabwiriza y’ubuyobozi. Adjudant-Chef Thierry Prungnaud uri mu batabaye yavuze ati: “Nous avons en quelque sorte désobéi aux ordres et nous sommes montés sur les hauteurs de Bisesero. ….car nous n’avions aucun ordre pour nous y rendre. Nous n’y avons été que de notre propre chef.”

Mu Ukwakira 1994, ikinyamakuru “RAIDS” cyo mu Bufaransa cyazobereye mu gutangaza amakuru ya gisirikare n’intambara zikomeye ku isi mu Nimero yacyo ya 101 cyakoze inkuru ndende ku Rwanda yitwa: “Dossier: Intervention Française au Rwanda”. Kigaragaza neza gahunda y’u Bufaransa muri Operation Turquoise.

Operation coup de poing

Icyo kinyamakuru kivuga ko kuva tariki ya 6 Mata 1994 ubwo jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi yatangiraga, hashyizweho itsinda ry’inzobere mu bya gisirikare ryo kureba uburyo u Bufaransa bwakohereza ingabo mu Rwanda muri “operation (bitaga) coup de poing” zigafasha FAR gutsinda burundu Inkotanyi.

Raporo yatanzwe n’izo nzobere muri Kamena 1994 yagiraga inama Guverinoma y’u Bufaransa kudasubira mu Rwanda kuko Inkotanyi zari hafi gufata igihugu cyose kandi FAR zatangiye gukwira imishwaro.

Ikindi izo mpuguke zavugaga ni uko kuva muri 1990 u Bufaransa bwagerageje inshuro ebyiri kurwanya Inkotanyi ntibushobore kuzitsinda, impuguke zikavuga ko u Bufaransa busubiye mu Rwanda nabwo nta cyizere cyo gutsinda Inkotanyi cyaba gihari kandi ko gutsindwa n’Inkotanyi byaba ari igisebo gikomeye.

Abarokotse Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Bisesero, n’umuryango uharanira inyungu z’abacitse ku icumu rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda, (IBUKA), baratangaza ko bababajwe cyane n’imyitwarire y’ubushinjacyaha bw’Ubufaransa nyuma yaho buhagaritse gukurikirana abasirikare bakekwaho uruhare muri Jenoside.

Kuri ejo ku wa mbere, ubushinjacyaha bw’ Ubufaransa bwatangaje ko mu iperereza bwakoze ku basirikare babwo bwasanze nta bimenyetso simusiga bigaragaza ko ingabo z’Ubufaransa zari muri ‘Opération Turquoise’ zaba zaragize uruhare muri Jenoside cyangwa ibindi byaha byibasiye inyokomuntu mu Rwanda.

Guhera mu mwaka wa 2005 umuryango IBUKA, na bamwe mu barokokeye mu Bisesero batanze ikirego bagaragaza ko abasirikare bari muri opération Turquoise bamaze iminsi itatu barataye ibihumbi by’abatutsi bari bahungiye mu Bisesero, bakabashumuriza Interahamwe ngo zibice. Kuba ubushinjacyaha bw’Ubufaransa buvuga ko nta bimenyetso simusiga bwabonye ku bakekwa, bivuze ko abacamanza bakuriye urwego rw’Ubugenzancyaha muri icyo gihugu baramutse bashyigikiye uwo mwanzuro, abaregwa baba batagikurikiranywe n’amategeko y’icyo gihugu.

Ku buryo butunguranye ariko, Alain Marie Juppé yirengagije iyo raporo, tariki ya 15 Kamena 1994 atangaza ko u Bufaransa bwiyemeje kohereza ingabo mu Rwanda bwitwaje ubutabazi, ari nayo mpamvu byagombye kwemezwa na LONI tariki ya 22 Kamena1994, Turquoise itangira ku mugaragaro tariki ya 23 Kamena1994.

Kubera gahunda yari ihari yo kurwana n’Inkotanyi, Ikinyamakuru RAIDS kivuga ko u Bufaransa butategereje umwanzuro wa Loni. Kuva tariki ya 18 Kamena 1994, bwatangiye gushyira hamwe abakomando bamenyereye intambara zikomeye barimo bamwe barwanira ku butaka, mu kirere no mu mazi babaga Nimes mu Bufaransa, Djibouti, Libreville na Reunion bahurira muri Centrafrique naho bahafata abandi bari basanzwe bahaba, bose berekeza iya Zaire. Abenshi muri bo bari abasore batarengeje imyaka 23 barwanye muri Somalia cyangwa Sarajevo.

Tariki ya 20 Kamena 1994 abo basirikare bari bamaze kugera Bukavu, Goma na Kisangani muri Zaire, ndetse Ikinyamakuru RAIDS kivuga ko n’ubwo Loni yari itaremeza Turquoise, uwo munsi hari abambutse umupaka bagera Cyangugu mu Rwanda bashaka kumenya aho ibirindiro by’Inkotanyi biri.

Bazanye abasirikare ibihumbi

Ikindi kigaragaza ko u Bufaransa bwaje mu Rwanda buje kurwana ni umubare munini w’abasirikare (2.500), ariko cyane cyane ubwinshi bw’intwaro zari ku bibuga by’indege bya Goma, Bukavu na Kisangani.

Tariki ya 24 Kamena1994, nyuma y’umunsi umwe gusa Turqouise itangiye ku mugaragaro, General Jean-Claude Lafourcade wari uyoboye Turquoise yari amaze kugezwaho intwaro nyinshi cyane. Nk’uko tubikesha icyo kinyamakuru, intwaro yari afite ni izi zikurikira.

Muri Operation Turquoise, Abafaransa bazanye intwaro z’inkazi

Ingabo zirwanira ku butaka zarimo abakomando bo muri (RPIMa) Regiment Parachutistes d’Infanterie de Marine, bafite intwaro zirasa hafi ndetse na kure harimo n’izikoreshwa mu ijoro, abarwanisha ibifaru n’abandi benshi bafite indege z’intambara za kajugujugu 10 bita Gazelle n’izindi 3 za Super-Puma.

Ingabo zirwanira mu kirere zari zifite indege zirenga 30 harimo za C-130 Hercules, Falcon -20, C-160 TRANSALL na CASA-235. Ingabo zo mu kirere kandi zakodesheje indege imwe ya Airbus, Boing 747 imwe, Antonov-124 Condor cumi na ziriindwi (17) zo gutwara ibikoresho bya gisirikare.

Ingabo zirwanira mu mazi zari zifite indege yitwa Brequet-Atlantic imwe ya kabuhariwe mu kuyobora imirwano, gutanga amakuru no kugenzura umwanzi (operations, transmission and observation).

Serivisi y’ubuzima yari ifite abaganga 46, bafite ivuriro rishobora kubaga (bloc operatoire), ibitaro bifite ibitanda 50, laboratwari n’aho bacisha abarwayi mu cyuma (cellule radiologique).

Bigaragara neza ko izo ndege zose zitari iz’ubutabazi gusa.

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