Uruhererekane rwa kudeta eshanu za Gisirikare mu Burundi mu myaka 50

U Burundi ni igihugu kimaze gukorwamo kudeta eshanu mu myaka 50 ishize, kandi zose zikozwe n’abasirikare bakuru, by’umwihariko izi kudeta zigakorwa buri myaka icumi.

Muri iyi nyandiko turibanda kuri kudeta nkuru za Gisirikare, ariko hari n’izindi nto (attempts) zitashobotse, nubwo zari zageragejwe.

Uko izi Kudeta zagiye zikurikirana

Kudeta ya Mbere: Lt Gen Michel Micombero

Kudeta ya mbere yakozwe na Colonel Micombero mu mwaka wa 1966, ahirika Umwami Ntare V. Micombero yari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Burundi nyuma y’Ubwigenge. Agihirika Umwami Ntare V Charles Ndizeye Mwambutsa, Micombero yishe abantu hafi ya bose batavugaga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwe, cyane cyane abari bagishyigikiye ingoma ya cyami n’abifuzaga demokarasi nyayo. Byabaye bibi kurusha ubwo hicwaga abantu basaga 200 000 mu mwaka wa 1972, mu gusubiranamo kw’amoko

Michel Micombero benshi bafata nka Colonel yakoze kudeta ari Kapiteni, ahita azamuka mu ntera asimbuka ipete rya Commandant (bararigiraga), asimbuka irya Major, asimbuka irya Lt Colonel, asimbuka irya Colonel, asimbuka irya Gen Brigade, asimbuka irya Gen Maj, ahubwo ahita afata irya Lieutenant Général, ipete ryari rifitwe gusa icyo gihe mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari na Lt Gen Joseph Desiré Mobutu Sese seko Kuku wa Za Banga, wari Parezida wa Zaire(ubu ni Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo).

Kuva kuri Kapiteni akaba Lt Gen byahise byemezwa n’Inam y’Igihugu y’Impinduramatwara (CNR – Conseil National de Revolution) yari igizwe n’abamufashije gukora kudeta. Yazamuye mu ntera abasirikare benshi, bose akabasimbutsa amapeti. Mu bo yazamuye harimo Jean Baptiste Bagaza wari Lieutenant akamugira Lt Colonel, bwacya akamugira Colonel.

Lt Gen Micombero yazamuye kandi Major Thomas Ndabemeye, amugira General Major, wahise atangira kwiga nawe uburyo yazahirika ubutegetsi.

Kudeta ya Kabiri: Colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza

Nyuma y’imyaka 10, mu mwaka wa 1976, Perezida Lt Gen Michel Micombero yakorewe kudeta na Colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza, wari wungirije Umugaba w’Ingabo. Hari kuwa 01 Ugushyingo 1976, Bagaza ayikora vuba na bwangu atanguranwa na Général-Major Thomas Ndabemeye wari Umugaba w’Ingabo z’u Burundi, kuko ari we wari wagize mbere igitekerezo cyo guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Micombero, akakigeza kuri Bagaza amugisha inama, undi akamusezeranya igisubizo nyuma yo kubyigaho neza.

Mu gihe cyo kubyigaho, Bagaza yarabyirangirije, anafungira i Bururi uyu Mugaba w’Ingabo Gen Maj Ndabemeye, ngo atazamuvangira. Mu gihe cye, impunzi nyinshi mu zari zarahunze ubwicanyi bwo muri 1972 zaratashye.

Rimwe mu makosa akomeye Col Bagaza yakoze rikamutesha ubukana n’ubukaka, ni aho yagiranye amakimbirane na Kiliziya Gatolika, akayibuza gukorera mu bwisanzure, nayo ikamukomanyiriza, ahatera ibaba.

Mu gihe cye, Colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza yirinze kuzamura abasirikare mu ntera, ndetse akuraho ipete rya Général , kuko nta musirikare n’umwe yifuzaga ko amurusha kwambara inyenyeri. Col Bagaza azwiho kandi kuba yaraziranaga na ba Perezida b’abasirikare bayoboraga u Rwanda, Uganda na Zaire ku gihe cye.

Kudeta ya Gatatu: Major Pierre Buyoya

Nyuma y’imyaka 10 n’amezi make, mu Burundi habaye indi kudeta ya gatatu nayo ikorwa n’umusirikare, Major Pierre Buyoya.

Nubwo yamaze imyaka hafi icumi yiga amashuri y’Intambara mu Bubiligi ,mu Budage no mu Bufaransa, yarapyinagazwaga ntazamurwe mu ntera. Kuwa 03/09/1987 yahengereyeubwo Perezida Col Bagaza yari mu ruzinduko rw’akazi muri Canada, ahita atangaza ko afashe ubutegetsi. Kuba yari azwi nk’inararibonye mu gisirikare, byakiriwe bityo.

Agifata ubutegetsi yahise aca iteka, ategeka ko Col Bagaza atemerewe na gato kongera gukandagira ukundi ku butaka bw’u Burundi (Persona non grata).

Major Petero Buyoya yahinduye Itegeko Nshinga ry’u Burundi mu mwaka wa 1992, anategura amatora y’Umukuru w’Igihugu yo mu mwaka wa 1993, ariko ntiyayatsinda, kuko hatowe Perezida Melchior Ndadaye, umusivile wa mbere wari uyoboye Repubulika y’u Burundi, kandi hadakozwe kudeta.

Ntibyateye kabiri Perezida Melchior Ndadaye yicwa ku mabwiriza y’ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ingabo, haba andi matora asimburwa na Cyprien Ntaryamira wamazeho amezi make akagwa mu mpanuka y’indege, nawe agasimburwa na Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

Kudeta ya Kane: Major Pierre Buyoya

Kudeta ya kane muBurundi, nanone yakozwe na Major Pierre Buyoya waherukaga kuyobora hagati ya 1987 na 1993, nabwo akoze kudeta. Nyuma yo gukora kudeta ubugira kabiri, kuri iyi nshuro hari mu mwaka wa 1996, Maj Pierre Buyoya yayoboye kuva 25 Nyakanga 1996 kugeza 30 Mata 2003.

Mu gihe yakoraga kudeta bwa kabiri avuga ko aje guca akajagari, Major Pierre Buyoya ntiyakunzwe cyane nk’uko byari bimeze akora kudeta ye ya mbere yavanyeho Colonel Bagaza wayoboreshaga inkoni y’icyuma.

Majoro Petero Buyoya wayoboye u Burundi muri manda ebyiri (1987-1993, 1996-2003) ingana n’imyaka 13, yitabye Imana azize COVID-19 nk’uko byatangajwe n’umuryango we.

Amakuru avuga kouyu mugabo watabarutse ageze ku myaka 71 y’ubukuru yaguye i Paris mu Bufaransa, ariko akaba yari aherutse gukatirwa igifungo cya burundu n’inkiko z’u Burundi,

Petero Buyoya kimwe na bagenzi be bagera kuri 18 bakurikiranyweho kwica Umukuru w’Igihugu cy’u Burundi wa mbere wishyiriweho n’abaturage Perezida Melchior Ndadaye tariki 21 Ukwakira 1993.

Majoro Buyoya abaye umuntu wa kabiri wayoboye u Burundi witabye Imana muri uyu mwaka nyuma ya mugenzi we Petero Nkurunziza witabye Imana muri Kamena 2020.

Yagiye ku butegetsi ahiritse uwo byavugwaga ko ari mubyara we Col Jean Baptiste Bagaza, na we wari warabufashe abanje guhirika Michel Micombero mu mwaka wa 1976.

Majoro Petero Buyoya wabarizwaga mu Ishyaka UPRONA yari yavuye ku butegetsi mu 1993 ubwo yatsindwaga mu matora rusange y’abaturage na Melchior Ndadaye wari mu ishyaka ryitwa FRODEBU.

Mu mwaka wa 2008 Maj. Buyoya yahawe inshingano zo guhagararira Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Afurika muri Chad, akomeza gukora inshingano zitandukanye kugeza mu kwezi gushize aho yeguye ku mwanya w’Intumwa yihariye ya AU muri Mali no muri Sahel.

Kudeta ya Gatanu: Gen Major Goddefroi Niyombare

Magingo aya, Perezida Pierre Nkurunziza ayobora u Burundi amaze ku butegetsi imyaka 10, ingana n’iyari ishize mu Burundi hataba kudeta. Ibi ariko ntibyabujije ko ku nshuro ya Gatanu mu Burundi hakorwa kudeta ariko ikaza gupfubywa.

Iyi kudeta ya Gatanu mu Burundi yakozwe n’umusirikare Mukuru Gen Major Godeffroi Niyombare, wari wizeye gushyigikirwa n’izindi ngabo ariko akaza gutungurwa, bigatuma Pierre Nkurunziza akomeza kuyobora u Burundi.

Kudeta zose zakozwe mu Burundi uko ari eshanu zabaye iz’Abofisoye bakuru, enye za mbere zarashobotse iya nyuma ya gatanu iburizwamo.

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