Yashyizweho kuri25 February, 2019 | 08:04

Ese demokarasi irimo gusubira inyuma muri Afurika?

Muri Afurika hakomeje kuba amatora kenshi ariko abasesenguzi bavuga ko menshi muri yo aba akurikije amategeko ariko ntakorwe neza. Nubwo ubushakashatsi bwerekana ko benshi mu batuye Afurika bashaka kubaho muri demokarasi, hari umubare ugenda wiyongera w’abashakisha ibindi byayisimbura nk’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu nkuko mubisanga muri iyi nkuru y’umunyamakuru wa BBC, Dickens Olewe.

Abasesenguzi bavuga ko mu myaka itatu ishize, ibihugu byo muri Afurika muri rusange byasubiye inyuma mu rwego rw’amategeko n’uburyo politiki yitabirirwa.

Nic Cheeseman, umwarimu wa demokarasi muri Kaminuza ya Birmingham avuga ko magingo aya umubare w’ibihugu bifite demokarasi idakora neza (15) ujya kungana n’uw’ibihugu bitegekeshwa igitugu (16) ku bihugu 54 bigize umugabane wa Afurika.

Igihugu cya Nigeria kizabamo amatora rusange kuwa gatandatu kiri mu bihugu bifite demokarasi idakora neza.

Nubwo bwose bimeze gutyo, 68% by’abatuye Afurika bavuga ko bifuza kuba mu bihugu birimo ukwishyira ukwizana nkuko bitangazwa n’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Afrobarometer mu bihugu 34 byo muri Afurika.

Uyu mubare ariko waragabanutse gahoro kubera ko wari 72% muri 2012.

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Icyamamare mu muziki Salif Keita avuga ko nta demokarasi iri muri Afurika

Icyamamare mu muziki Salif Keita avuga ko nta demokarasi iri muri Afurika
Emmanuel Gyimah-Boadi umukuru w’ikigo cya Afrobarometer avuga ko abanyafurika biteze byinshi kuri demokarasi; bashaka ko ibintu bikorwa mu mucyo kandi ntibashaka ruswa.

Yongeraho ko biri mu nyungu z’abaterankunga ba Afurika gushyigikira ibi abanyafurika bashaka. Icyamamare mu muziki cyo muri Mali, Salif Keita, we rwose nta demokarasi abona na gato muri Afurika.

Aherutse kuvuga ko uyu mugabane ukenewe umunyagitugu ugira ubuntu nk’Ubushinwa.

Keita arabaza ati: "Kugirango habeho demokarasi, abantu bagomba kumenya icyo aricyo, nose abantu bashobora kumva demokarasi bate mu gihe 85% bo mu gihugu iki n’iki batazi gusoma no kwandika?"

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Politiki ya Trump kuri Afurika ntirimo guteza imbere demokarasi

"Nkunda Trump"

Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika ubusanzwe zakundaga gushyigikira ko muri Afurika haba demokarasi, ariko ubu iki gihugu kisigaye cyarabaye ntibindeba kuva aho Perezia Trump agiriye ku butegetsi muri 2017.

Igihe yatangazaga politiki ye kuri Afurika atinze cyane mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2018, abasesenguzi benshi bahise babona ko hari ibintu abamubanjirije batindagaho cyane bitarimo.

Ibyo nabyo akaba ari uguteza imbere demokarasi, gushyigikira amatora akozwe mu bwisanzure nta buriganya hamwe n’uburenganzira bw’abanyapolitiki n’impirimpanyi z’uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu.

Politiki ya Trump kuri Afurika ntirimo guteza imbere demokarasi

Iyo politiki ya Trump ahubwo yibanze ku kurwanya iterabwoba, kugabanya amafaranga agenda ku ngabo za ONU kuri Afurika no kwamagana ibikorwa by’Uburusiya n’Ubushinwa muri Afurika.

Cheeseman agira ati: "Iyo abategetsi bo muri Afurika babonye umutegetsi nka Trump usa n’ushimishwa no kuramukanya n’abategekesha igitugu, aba ari ikimenyetso kuri bo ko bashobora kwiba amatora ntihagire ubibaryoza".

Perezida wa Uganda Yoweri Museveni uziyamamariza kuyobora igihugu ku nshuro ya gatanu muri 2021 yigeze kuvuga ati: "Nkunda Trump".

Yanavuze kandi ko Trump ariwe perezida mwiza Amerika imaze kugira.

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Abanyafurika benshi baba biteguye gutora umurongo igihe kirerekire kugirango batore.

Muri 1991, Benin na Zambia byabaye ibihugu bya mbere byo muri Afurika byategekwaga n’ishyaka rimwe rukumbi byemeye demokarasi ihuriweho n’amashyaka menshi maze amatora atsindwa n’abatavuga rumwe na leta.

Ubwo haba hatangiye inkubiri ya demokarasi muri Afurika nyuma y’isenyuka ry’icyahoze ari Repubulika zunze ubumwe z’abasoviyete.

Nyuma y’imyaka hafi 30, Benin ifatwa nka kimwe mu bihugu icyenda birimo demokarasi isesuye ku bihugu 54 bigize Afurika.

Zambia yo yasubiye inyuma ijya mu bihugu birimo demokarasi icagase nkuko bivugwa n’icyegeranyo cyo muri 2019 cy’ikigo Freedom House.

Umubare w’ibihugu birimo demokarasi isesuye biracyari bimwe ugereranyije n’imyaka 10 ishize.

Ibihugu birindwi - Senegal, Ghana, Benin, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa na Mauritius biracyari mu mwanya byarimo.

Tunisia yo yateye intambwe iva kuri demokarasi icagase mu gihe Mali na Lesotho byo byafashe icyerekezo kinyuranye n’icyo gihugu.

Angola na Ethiopia, nubwo biri mu bihugu bitarimo ubwisanzure, biravugwa ko byateye intambwe itunguranye nyuma yaho biboneye abayobozi bashya umwaka ushize.

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Ibihugu byinshi bikoresha ikoranabuhanga kugirango amatora yizerwe

Ikoranabuhanga n’amatora

Ihererakanya ry’ubutegetsi binyuze mu matora ni kimwe mu bigenderwaho kugirango umenya niba igihugu kigendera kuri demokarasi.

Hari n’ibihugu bimwe bikoresha ikoranabuhanga kugirango byerekane ko amatora yizewe ariko muri rusange ibi ahubwo byatumye abantu barushaho kutayagirira ikizere.

Nanjala Nyabola, wanditse igitabo kitwa Digital Democracy, Analogue Politics avuga ko nko mu matora yo muri Kenya muri 2017 nubwo yakoreshejwemo ikoranabuhanga kugirango berekane ko yakozwe mu mucyo ngo ntabwo abantu bayagiriye ikizere.

Akomeza avuga ko hari abasanga demokarasi yo muri Afurika yagombye kugira ibindi igenderaho; aha agatanga urugero rw’imyitwarire y’amahanga yemeye ibyavuye mu matora aheruka muri Repubulika ya demokarasi ya Congo.

Ibihugu byinshi bikoresha ikoranabuhanga kugirango amatora yizerwe
Perezida Joseph Kabila yakoresheje amatora ari mu yakuruye impaka kurusha ayandi muri Afurika.

Bamwe bavuze ko ayo matora yibwe.

Martin Fayulu, waje ku mwanya wa kabiri, yanze kwemera itsinzi ya Felix Tshisekedi.

Avuga ko ariwe watsinze ayo matora agendeye ku mibare y’indorerezi za Kiliziya gatolika zigera ku 40000 zari hirya no hino mu gihugu.

Jon Temin, ushinzwe Afurika mu kigo Freedom House, avuga ko politiki ya Amerika kuri Afurika ituma hari ikintu gihinduka ariko ngo si cyo kintu k’ingenzi gituma demokarasi isubira inyuma kuri uyu mugabane.

Icyegeranyo giheruka cy’iki kigo kivuga ko demokarasi ku isi imaze imyaka 13 igenda isubira inyuma.

Impirimbanyi ya demokarasi yo muri Ghana, Nansata Yakubu, avuga ko nubwo ibintu bitagenze neza mu bihugu nka Repubulika ya demokarasi ya Congo, ngo ibikorwa byo gushyigikira demokarasi ntabwo byagombye guhagararira ku matora.

Steven Friedman, umwarimu wa politiki muri kaminuza ya Johannesburg, we avuga ko icyagombye kwitabwaho ari uguha abaturage ijambo mu bibazo byinshi bibareba aho kugereranya uko buri gihugu kiyobowe ugereranyije n’ibihugu byo mu Burayi na Amerika.

Inkuru nziza nuko demokarasi ikomeje gushyigikirwa.

Ariko aho ikibazo kiri ni uko idashobora kugerwaho mu gihe abanyafurika batemerewe kubaho mu mahoro no mu bwisanzure kandi ntibitabire amatora akozwe mu mucyo nta buriganya.

Chief editor/ MUHABURA


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