Yashyizweho kuri27 August, 2017 | 20:40

Menya Byinshi utaruzi ku Ntambara yamennye amaraso menshi y’abantu mu mateka y’isi

Intambara ya mbere y’isi yamenetsemo amaraso y’abantu batagira ingano, yaranzwe no gutakaza uduce duto kuri bamwe no kwigarurira uduce duto ku bandi. Habarurwa abasirikare bagera kuri milioni 10 bayiguyemo naho izindi miliyoni 20 zirakomereka. N’ubwo benshi bizeraga ko intambara ya mbere y’isi yashoboraga kuba ariyo ntambara ya nyuma, mu byukuri, amasezerano y’amahoro yasinywe ngo irangizwe, yabaye nk’afungura cyangwa nk’atanga icyuho cyo kwinjira mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Uko intambara ya mbere y’isi yatangiye

Intambara ya mbere y’isi, abandi bise intambara karundura, yatangiye mu mwaka w’1914 irangira mu mwaka w’1919.

Intandaro y’itangira ry’intambara y ambere y’isi yabaye ihotorwa ry’igikomangoma cyo mu gihugu cya Austria-Hungary cyitwaga Franz Ferdinand ndetse n’umugore we Sofiya. Ubu bwicanyi bwabaye kuwa 28 Kamena 1914 igihe Ferdinand yasuraga umujyi wa Sarajevo mu gihugu cya Bosnia-Herzegovina.

N’ubwo igikomangoma Franz Ferdinand, wari umwishya w’umwami w’abami wa Austria akaba ari nawe wagombaga kuzamusimbura ku ngoma atari akunzwe n’abantu benshi, ukwicwa kwe n’umuseribe byitwajwe nk’impamvu yo gutera igihugu cyari gishyize Austria- Hungary mu kaga aricyo Seribiya.

Nyamara aho guhita yinjira mu ntambara, Austria-Hungary yabanje kwizera ko ubudage buri ku ruhande rwayo, aho babanje gusinya amasezerano mbere yo kugira icyo ikora. Ibi ariko byahaye umwanya Seribiya wo kwiyunga n’Uburusiya nabo bahise basinya amasezerano y’ubufatanye. Gushaka ababashyigikira ntibyahagarariye aho kuko Uburusiya nabwo bwari bufitanye amasezerano n’Ubufaransa ndetse n’Ubwongereza bivuze ko aba bombi bagombaga gutabara ku ruhande rw’Uburusiya.

Igihe rero cyarageze maze Austria-Hungary itangaza ku mugaragaro intambara ku gihugu cya Seribiya aho hari kuwa 28 Nyakanga 1914, hashize ukwezi ubwicanyi bubaye, uburayi bwose bukaba bwari mpaka z’urudaca.

Intambara ya mbere y’isi itangira, yarimo ibihugu 5 gusa byibumbiye matsinda abiri. Ibindi bihugu byagiye mu ntambara nyuma. Ayo matsinda ni aya akurikira:

• Imbaraga z’iyunze(Allied forces) cyangwa abiyunze: Ubufaransa, Ubwongereza, Uburusiya.

• Imbaraga zo hagati (Central Powers): Ubudage, Austria-Hungary

• Ubudage bwabonye bikomeye kurwana n’uburusiya mu burasirazuba n’ubufaransa mu burengerazuba bityo buhita bukora igishushanyo cy’intambara bwise Schlieffen Plan. Icyi gishushanyo cyakozwe n’umudage witwa Alfred Graf von Schlieffen wayoboye Inama rusange y’ubudage cyangwa German general staff kuva muw’1891 kugeza 1905.

Schlieffen yari azi ko kugirango Uburusiya bubashe gushyira hamwe ingabo zabwo ndetse n’ibindi bikenewe byari gufata ibyumweru bitandatu bityo iyo Ubudage bukaba bwaragombaga gushyira abasirikare bake mu burasirazuba, abasirikare benshi bagakoreshwa mu kurwana byihuse mu burengerazuba. Kubera ko Ubudage bwarimo kurwanira mu burasirazuba ndetse no mu burengerazuba intambara igitangira, bwafashe icyemezo cyo gushyira mu bikorwa igishushanyo cya Schlieffen. Maze mu gihe Uburusiya bwashyiraga hamwe ingabo n’ibikoresho, Ubudage butera Ubufaransa bunyuze mu Bubirigi nyamara kuko Ububirigi bwari bwarasinye amasezerano yo gutabarana n’Ubwongereza bituma Ubwongereza buhita bwinjira mu ntambara.

• Mu gihe Ubudage bwashyiraga mu bikorwa igishushanyo cya Schlieffen, Ubufaransa bwashyize mu bikorwa igishushanyo bwari bwarateguye kiswe Igishushanyo cya XVII cyangwa Plan XVII. Iki gishushanyo cyakozwe mu 1913 kikaba cyaragombaga gukoreshwa mu gushyira hamwe abasirikare mu buryo bwihuse igihe Ubudage bwatera Ubufaransa bunyuze mu Bubirigi. Abasirikare b’ubudage bamanuka bateye ubufaransa, n’aho ab’ Ubwongereza n’Ubufaransa bazamuka babasanganira. Ni uko Kanama 1914 ishira nta ruhande rushoboye kwirukana urundi, bituma abasirikare batangira gucukura indake barwaniyemo mu mwaka ine yose yakurikiyeho

Intambara imara abasirikare(war of attrition)

Kuva mu 1914 kugeza mu 1917, abasirikare ku mpande zombi barwanaga baturutse mu ndake. Inshuro nyinshi abayobozi babo babategekaga gusohoka bakajya kurwana. Uburyo bwonyine bwashobokaga kugirango abasirikare bamwe bagere ku ndake z’abandi, bwari ukunyura mu gace katagira ukagenzura ku maguru. Aha abasirikare batagira ingano baraharasiwe hakoreshejwe imbunda zikomeye bita machine-gun mbere y’uko banakwegera abanzi babo.

Kubera abasirikare bapfaga buri munsi, abantu batangiye kubona ko intambara izatsindwa n’uzaba afite ingabo nyinshi. Kuko abasirikare bari bamaze gukendera bayise War of Attrition cyangwa intambara imara abasirikare tugenekereje mu kinyarwanda.

Ukwinjira kw’abanyamerika, gusohoka kw’abarusiya mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi

Abiyunze bari bakeneye inkunga kandi bifuzaga ko Amerika yaza ku ruhande rwabo kuko yari ifite ibikoresho byinshi ndetse n’abasirikare benshi. Nyamara hari hashize imyaka myinshi Amerika ifite ingengabitekerezo yo kuguma ari igihugu cyitaruye ibindi aribyo bise Isolationism. Hejuru y’ibyo, Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika ntizashakaga kwinjira mu ntambara ibera kure y’imbibi zayo kandi igaragara nk’aho nta kintu ishobora guhungabanya ku busugire bwayo mu buryo ubwo aribwo bwose. Nyamara hari impamvu ebyiri z’ingenzi zatumye Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika zihindura uko zabonaga intambara ya mbere y’isi:

Iya mbere ni ukuntu ubwato bwa gisirikare bw’Ubudage bwitwa U-boat bugendera hasi mu mazi bw’abadage bwashenye ubwato bw’ubwongereza bise ocean liner RMS Lusitania. Ubu bwato bwafatwaga n’abanyamerika nk’ubwato budafite aho buhuriye n’intambara bwari butwaye abasivire cyangwa abaturage batari abasirikare.

Indi mpamvu ni Zimmermann Telegram. Mu ntangiro z’1917, Ubudage bwoherereje igihugu cya Mexiko ubutumwa bita telegaramu bwemereraga Mexiko igice cy’ubutaka bw’Amerika igihe izinjira mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi irwanya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika. Ubu butumwa bwafatiwe mu nzira n’Ubwongereza maze burahindurwa bwerekwa abanyamerika. Kuko ibi byari bitangiye kuzana intambara ku butaka bw’Amerika, byatumye Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika zibona impamvu ifatika yo kwinjira mu ntambara ziri ku ruhande rw’abiyunze, maze mu mwaka w’1917, Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika zitangaza ku mugaragaro intambara ku gihugu cy’Ubudage.

Igihe Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika zinjiraga mu ntambara, Uburusiya bwo bwari burimo kuyivamo. Mu 1917, mu Burusiya habaye inkundura ya revolusiyo yakuye uwitwaga czar ku butegetsi. Maze guverinoma y’abakominisiti yibanda cyane ku gukemura ibibazo mpuzamahanga by’Uburusiya ari nabyo byatumye ifata icyemezo cyo gusohoka mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi. Ibi ikaba yarabikoze ikorana imishyikirano n’abadage, iyi ikaba itari irimo ibindi bihugu by’abiyunze, yaje kugera ku masezerano y’amahoro yiswe Brest-Litovsk peace treaty kuwa 3 werurwe 1918. Kuko urugamba rwo mu burasirazuba rwari rurangiye, Ubudage bwari bubonye uburyo bwo kohereza abasirikari babwo mu burasirazuba guhangana n’abasirikare bashya b’Amerika.

Ihagarikwa ry’intambara n’amasezerano ya Versailles

Intabara yamaze undi mwaka umwe, abasirikare benshi bakomeza gupfa, mu gihe ahantu hato hakomezaga gufatwa. Nyamara amavamuhira y;ingabo z’abanyamerika yateye impinduka zikomeye. Mu gihe ingabo z’abanyaburayi zari zimaze kuruha, Abanyamerika bahashyije cyane abadage maze batangira gusubira inyuma. Intambara yari igiye kurangira.

Mu mpera z’umwaka w’1918, ihagarikwa ry’intambara ryemeranijweho. Intambara yagombaga guhagarikwa kuwa 11 Ugushyingo 1918 sa tanu z’amanywa. Amezi menshi yakurikiyeho, abadipolomate baganiraga kandi bakagira ibyo bemeranywaho kugirango bashyire mu bikorwa amasezerano ya Versailles. Nyamara ingingo nyinshi zayo zarivuguruzaga bituma afatwa nk’aho yahaye icyuho itangizwa ry’intambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Intambara ya mbere y’isi irangira yari imaze kwangiza ibintu bitagira ingano ndetse no guhitana imbaga y’abantu. Abasirikare bagera kuri miliyoni 10 barapfuye ni ukuvuga abagera ku 6500 buri munsi. Hejuru y’abo, miliyoni nyinshi z’abasivire zarishwe. Yibukirwa ku bwicanyi ndenga kamere bw’abantu bwayiranze ikaba ifata nk’intambara yamennye amaraso menshi y’abantu mu mateka y’isi.

Yashyizwe na Chief editor MUHABURA.RW


Tanga igitecyerezo

Amazina
Ubutumwa

Izindi nkuru

Inkuru zikunzwe