Yashyizweho kuri21 December, 2016 | 16:49

Menya byinshi ku Mateka n’Ubuzima bya Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz yavutse kuwa 13 Kanama 1926 mu ntara y’iburasirazuba bw’igihugu cya Cuba hafi yahitwa Biran. Castro yari umwana gatatu mu mbyaro esheshatu z’ababyeyi be ubariyemo abavandimwe be babiri, Raul, na Ramon hamwe na bashiki be batatu aribo Angela, Emma, na Agustina.

Se yitwaga Angel, naho nyina akitwa Lina Ruz Gonzalez. Se yari umuhinzi w’isukari aribyo bimukijije, yari yarabikomoye mu guhugu cya Espagne.
Ubucuruzi bwe bw’isukari yabaga yejeje yabukoreraga muri kompanyi y’Abanyamerika yitwaga American-owned United Fruit Company, mu gihe cye yari yarigaruriye ubuhinzi bw’isukari mu gihugu cyose.

Nyina wa Castro, Gonzalez yari umuyaya ku mugore wa mbere yitwaga Maria Luisa Argota ubwo Fidel Castro yavukaga. Igihe Fidel yari afite imyaka 15, se yatanye n’umugore we wa mbere ashakana na nyina wa Castro.

Castro agejeje ku myaka 17, Se yaramukundaga cyane aza kumuha irindi zina amwita Castro mu gihe yitwaga Ruz.

Castro yize mu ishuri ryigenga ryitwa Jesuit Boarding Schools, yakuriye mu buzima bwiza mu gihe igihugu cye bari abakene ariko yari afite umugisha yarazwe n’abarimu bamwigishije muri Espagne, kuko ubuhinzi bw’isukari niho yabukomoye.

Mu bwana bwe, Castro yeretswe ko ari umunyempano y’ubwenge ariko yari umuntu wakundaga guteza ibibazo mu buzima busanzwe. Yakundaga cyane imikino kurusha amasomo yok u ishuri.

Amashuri ye yayize muri Colegio Dolores mu mujyi wa Santiago de Cuba, aza kwiga no mu ishuli ryitwa El Colegio de Belen muri Havana aho yahise ajya mu ikipe y’ikigo yitwaga Baseball agakina umukino wa Basketball n’umukino wo kwirukanka.

Mu mwaka wa 1946, akirangiza kwiga yahise ajya kwiga mu ishuri ry’amategeko muri kaminuza yitwa University of Havana, ari nabwo yaje guhinduka umuntu ukunda Abaturage ba Cuba n’igihugu cye muri rusange, akanga ubukoloni, agakunda gukorera hamwe ariko imbaraga ze nyinshi akazishyira muri politiki.

Mu mwaka 1947, Castro yaje gukundaga cyane ubutabera nk’intwaro ye. Nyuma y’igihe gito yahise ajya muri Repubulika ya Dominic yihuza n’itsinda rirwanya umunyagitugu wayoboraga Dominican Republic, Rafael Trujillo.

Urugendo rwe rwo kurwanya ubyobozi bw’igitugu ntirwigeze rworoha, nubwo bamwe bamurwanyaga ariko ntibyabahiriye, impinduka yazigeragaho. Nyuma aza kugirira uruzinduko muri Bogota, Colombia, hose yaharaniraga kurwanya guverinoma zitegekesha igitugu.

Mu mwaka wa 1947, Castro yaje kwihuza n’ishyaka Partido Ortodoxo ryarwanyaga impinduramatwara yo kudahuriza hamwe ryahizweho kugira ngo rizane impinduka nziza muri guverinoma y’igihugu cya Cuba.

Uwashinze rino shyaka yitwaga Eduardo Chibas, yaje kugirwa umukandida mu matora yabaye mu 1948 biza kurangira ayatsinzwe, ariko yifuriza acastro gukomeza kugira ubuashake n’umurava ku murimo w’umukuru w’igihugu kandi yanamwifurije kuba intumwa y’ubushake.

Castro yaziraga guverinoma yaririho yarangwaga na ruswa ikomeye cyane; yari iyobowe na Perezida General Fulgencio Batista washakaga kongera gusubira ku butegetsi, agashishikariza abaturage kurwanya ruswa.

Chibas nyuma yo kubona abaturage banze kumutiza umurindi wo kubasha gukuraho no kurwanya ibikorwa bibi byatumaga igihugu kidatera imbere; mu mwaka wa 1951 yaje kwirasa ari kuvuga amakuru kuri radiyo.

Nyuma y’igihe gito, Fidel Castro yaje gushaka undi mugore witwa Mirta Diaz Balart ukomoka mu muryango w’abakire, umwe mu banyapolitiki b’igihugu cya Cuba. Mu mwaka wa 1949 babyaye umwana umwe bamwita Fidel.

Batista ubwe ku giti cye yiyitaga umunyagitugu abifashijwemo n’igisirikare cye cyari kimushyigikiye ndetse n’inkunga nyinshi yakuraga ku mugabane wa America muri Leta Zunze ubumwe za America.

Castro abifashijwemo n’abanyeshyaka rye Partido Ortodoxo baje gushaka igisubizo mu buryo bworoshye, bashinga itsinda baryita The Movement, iri tsinda ryari rigamije kurwanya ubuyobozi bw’igitugu mu gihugu cya Cuba.

Kuwa 26 Nyakanga 1953, Castro afatanyije n’abandi bantui 150 bakomoka mu ishyaka rye bagabye igitero kuri batayo y’igisirikare cya Moncada hanze y’umujyi wa Santiago de Cuba kigamije guhirika ubutegetsi bwa Batista.

Kubw’amahirwe make igitero ibyacyo ntibyagezweho, byaje kurangira Castro afashwe acibwa urubanza, araregwa aratsindwa akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka 15 ari muri gereza. Mu bo bafunganywe harimo na murumuna we witwaga Raul.


Uko intambara yarwanyaga ubutegetsi bwa Batista yiswe Guerrilla War yagenze

Mu gihe Castro yari afunze yise ryatsinda bari bafunganye bakoranye icyo gitero The 26th of July Movement, ariko rino tsinda ryakomeje guhuza umugambi waryo ndetse n’ibikorwa byo kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Batista binyuze mu gukorera hamwe.

Castro afatanyije n’abarwanashyaka rye byaje kurangira bafunguwe mu mwaka 1955 bagifite umugambi wo kuzakuraho ubutegetsi bwa Batista. Castro yasi ahungira mu gihugu cya Mexico arikumwe na murumuna we Raul bakomeza guterirayo intambara yo kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Batista.

Muri Mexico Castroyaje kuhahurira n’abandi baturage benshi cyane bo mu gihug cya Cuba bari barahahungiye; bari kumwe n’undi muntu utaravugaga rumwe na Argentine ukomoka muri Argentine witwaga Ernesto Che Guevara nawe utaravugaga rumwe na America y’Abalatini yari ikenye ko bagombaga kuyirwnya bakoresheje intambara ikomeye cyane.

Guevara yaje kujya mu itsinda rya Castro biragira aribereye umuntu ukomeye cyane kandi w’ingirakamaro bitewe n’umugambi bari bafite, Guevara yigiriraga icyizere kandi yari ashyigikiye 100% impiduramatwara ya Castro.

Kuwa 02 Ukuboza 1956, Fidel Castro yagarutse mu gihugu cye avuye mu mahanga ari kumwe n’abarwanashyaka be bagera kuri 80 baje bapakiye ubwato bwomu bwoko bwa Ganma intwaroo nyinshi zitabarika baca hafi y’uburasirazuba bw’umujyi wa Manzanillo.

Mu kanya nk’ako guhumbya, Batista yaciye iteka ryo gufata abari bagambye icyo gitero kiyobowe na Castro ngo babice. Barabafashe bamwe muri bo barabica ariko Castro hamwe na murumuna we Raul, Guevara n’abandi bake bagerageje gucika ntibabica.

Nyuma y’indi myaka ibiri yakurikiyeho Fidel Castro hamwe na rya tsinda rye byakomeje kwishyira hamwe ngo birywanye ubutegetsi bwa Batista na guverinoma ye muri rusange binyuze mu ntambara bise guerrilla war.

Castro yaremye udutsinda n’udutsiko twinshi atwoherereza mu mijyi itandukanye yo mu gihugu utundi atwohereza mu yindi mijyi iciriritse yo mu gihugu cya Cuba ngo bazarwanye ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwa Batista.

Byaje kurangira umugambi wa Castro ugezweho. Mu ntangiriro z’umwaka 1958 Castro afatanyije n’abarwanashyaka be bigaruriye tumwe mu duce dukomeye two mu gihugu cya Cuba.

Mu kwezi kwa Mutarama, mu mwaka 1959 Batista na bamwe mu bo muri guverinoma ye bahungiye muri Dominican Republic. Castro ku myaka ye 32, yanzuye ko we n’ishyarye bagomba kuyobora igihugu cya Cuba.

Mur uyu mwaka guverinoma nshya y’agateganyo yagiyeho, iyobowe na perezida Manuel Urritia ariko w’agateganyo afatanyije na Jose Miro Cardona nka minisitiri w’intebe. Guverinoma yahise ishyirwaho yaje guhita imenyeka muri Leta zunze ubumwe za America.

Castro ubwe ku giti cye yahise ajya muri Havana ahyirwaho nka Chief-Commander w’ingabo. Muri Gashyantare 1969, Miro yaje kwegura ku buryo butunguranye bityo Fidel Castro ahita ashirwaho nka minisitiri mushya w’intebe wa Cuba, mu buryo bwo kuziba icyuho cye. Nyuma y’igihe gito amagana y’abari bashyigikiye Batista barafashwebaricwa.

Uko Cuba yaje kongera gusenyera umugozi umwe

Castro nka minisitiri mukuru w’intebe yaje gushyira mu bikorwa impinduka zimwe na zimwe yari yariyejekuzahita ashiraho. Zimwe muri zo ziteye zitya, “gushyiriraho imisoro iremereye amakopanyi amwe n’amwe yo muri America akorera mu gihugucye ugereranyije n’umusoro inganda zo mu gihugu cye zikwiye gusora.”

Ibi kubikora ngo ngo ni zimwe mu nzira n’ingamba zo kwanga agasuzuguro ka America mu gihugu cya Cuba. Castro mu buzima bwe ntiyakundaga agasuzuguro n’igitugu muri rusange.

Kandi ngo ibi ntibyagize ingaruka nziza kuri zimwe mu nganda za America zabarirwaga mu gihugu kuko nyinshi muri zo zaje kugenda zicika integer ku buryo bugaragara n’ubukungu bwazo bukagenda bukendera.

Mu gucika integer kwazo, byaje gutuma ubukungu bwa amerika busubira inyuma bityo umubano wa Cuba na America ugenda urushaho kugabanuka, kuko Fidel Castro ntiyigeze akunda igitugu kivanze n’agasuzuguro mu buzima bwe.

Mu mwaka 1959 Fidel Castro afatanyije n’itsinda rye ntibyaje koroha bagiriye uruzindukommuri America nk’abashyitsi baturutse muri National Press Club. Castro yifuje ko yahura na perezida wayoboraga Leta zunze ubumwe za America icyo gihe witwaga Dwight Eisenhower birangira yanze ko bahura ngo bagire icyo baganira.

Muri uyu mwaka mu kwezi kwa Gicurasi, Castro yahise asinya amasezerano ya mbere yise “Agrarian Reform Act” agamije gukumira ubutaka bwa bimwe mu bihugu byo hanze bwabarurirwaga mu gihugu cya Cuba no kurwanya inkunga z’amahanga.

Intego nyamukuru w’iri sezerano yari uguteza imbere umuhinzi baharanira kwigira mu buhinzi. Mu by’ukuri ibi byatumye igihugu cya Cuba gifatanyije n’abaturage bacyo barushaho kumenya gucunga neza umutungo wabo w’ubutaka kuko abahinzi benshi byabaviriyemo kwishakira akazi kandi kabaha inyungu.

Mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1959, intambara ya Castro yaje gushinga imizi abifashijwemo no gukuraho bamwe mu ngabo z’igisikare cya Cuba ndetse na guverinoma yagateganyo yari iriho; iyobowe na perezida Urritia ahita amukuraho. Kandi yakuyeho ibinyamakuru n’ibitangazamakuru byo mu gihugu cye bitari bishyigikiye ubuyobozi bwe.

Guverinoma ya Castro itangira kongera kugirana umubano na Leta y’abasoviyete yitwa “Soviet Union”. USSR abavugizi barenga 100 bakomoka mu gihugu cya Espanye ngo bafashe kandi bashyigikire ubuyobozi bwa Castro. Castro yagiye ku butegetsi bw’umukuru w’igihugu kubera Coup d’état yakoze.

Muri Gashyantare 1960, Cuba yasinye amasezerano y’ubucuruzi bwo kugura amavuta ya buto akomoka muri Soviet Union ndetse inashyiraho umubano wiganjemo demokarasi.

Mu gihe inganda zo muri America zabarirwaga mu gihugu cya Cuba zari zarahagaze gukora amavuta, Castro yazimye uburenganzira bwokongera gukorera mu gihugu cye; bityo Leta zunze ubumwe za America zihita zihifata icyemezo cyo kutazongera kujya zigemura isukari muri Cuba. Bityo umubano w’ibihugu byombi uko ari bibiri utangira kuba induru gusa.

Bay of Pigs

Mu mwaka 1961 wabaye umwaka w’ingenzi mu mubano hagati ya Cuba na Leta zunze ubumwe za America. Kuwa 03 Mutarama 1961, perezida wa U.S. ucyuye igihe Dwight Eisenhower yaciye umubano wa guverinoma ya Cuba.

Kuwa 14 Mata 1961, Castro yatangaje ko Cuba ari igihugu gikorera hamwe. Mu minsi itatu yakurikiyeho bamwe mu banya Cuba bari mu buhungiro bagera 1400 bageze muri Cuba mu buryo bwo kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Fidel Castro barabaga kure ya Bay of Pigs.

Igitero cyabo muri Cuba nticyabahiriye kuko byarangiye benshi muri bo bishwe abandi barenga 1000 barafatwa bagirirwa nabi. Ngo nubwo U.S. itabyivanzemo byari byaravuzwe ko izo munzi z’Abanyecuba zari zarahungiye muri America zatojwe na Central Intelligence Agency yo muri Amerika ifatanyije n’igisirikare cya Amerika ari nacyo cyari cyabatije intwaro zo kurwanisha.

Mu binyejana byagiye bikurikiraho, umutwe w’ingabo mu gihugu cya Cuba National Security Archive wavumbuye ko Leta zunze ubumzwe za America ibyihishe inyuma kandi irimo irategura guhirika ubuyobozi bwa Fidel Castro na guverinoma ye muri rusange nkuko yabigenje muri Werurwe mu mwaka 1959 akuraho iyaririho.

Uyu mugambi wo gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Castro afatanyije na Guverinoma ye wateguwe mu gihe Dwight Eisenhower yari perezida wari warashyigikiwe na perezida John F. Kennedy wamubanjirije.

Castro byaramubabaje cyane bituma yikubira ubutegetsi ashyira imbaraga nyinshi muri politiki. Mu kwezi kwa Gicurasi ku italiki ya 01 yatangaje ko amatora yakozwe mu mucyo mu gihugu cye ahita yanga urunuka ubukoloni bw’abanyamerika.

Kuwa 7 Gashyantare 1962, Leta zunze ubumzwe za America zafungiye Cuba amazi n’umuriro ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi byatezaga ubukungu bw’igihugu imbere.

Castro yakomeje umubano yari afitanye na Soviet Union abinyujije mu kwemera inkunga ziteza ubukungu bw’igihugu imbere n’inkunga za gisirikare. Mu 1962 Ukwakira, umubano wa Cuba wakomeje kwiyongera kugeza ubwo batanze inkunga za Missiles muri Cuba.

Castro yari yiteguye guhagarika ikindi gitero cy’abanyamerika muri Cuba, abifashijwemo na Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev batekereje gushyira missiles ahantu hose mu gihugu cya Cuba hateganye na Cuba uvuye muri 90 miles hafi ya Leta ya Florida.

Ariko ngo mu gutega bino bisasu bya missiles indege yo muri America yo mu bwoko bwa American U-2 reconnaissance plane yari yamaze kuvumbura ko bateze ibisasu bya missiles mu gihugu. John F. Kennedy ategeka ko bagomba kubanza gutegura izo missiles zatezwe ahantu hose.

Mu minsi irenga 13 hagati ya Khrushchev, Kennedy n’abunganizi be hamawe n’Abasoviets bagiranye ikiganiro kirekire bemeranywa gutegura missiles zarizatezwe impande zose mu gihugu kuko Leta zunze ubumwe za America zarizemeye ko ntagutera Cuba bizabaho.

Ubuyobozi burongowe na John Kennedy yongeye yemera ko bagomba gutegura mu ibanga Jupiter missiles zatezwe muri Turkey mu buryo bwo kububhabunga umutekano w’igihugu no gushimangira umubano hagati ya Cuba na America.

Abayobozi bombi bemeye ko bagomba kureka imigambi mibisha bari bateguye. Ku rundi ruhande bishatse gusobanura ko Castro yaciwe amazi na America. Byongeye kandi Leta zunze ubumwe za America zahise zishyira ku mu rongo Organization of American States ko igomba guca umubano ifitanye na Cuba, mu buryo bwo guca amazi ubuyobozi bwa Fidel Castro.

Cuba mu gihe cya Castro

Mu mwaka wa 1965 Castro yashyizeho ishyaka ryitwa “Communist Party” abifashijwemo n’intambara nyinshi yagiye akora, birangira abaye umuyobozi waryo. Mu myaka mike yakurikiyeho yagize uruhare rukomeye ko mu kurwanya ubukoloni bwa America cyane cyane America y’abalatini n’ubukoloni bw’ibihugu by’Africa.

Mu mwaka 1966 Fidel Castro yashinze umuryango witwa “Organization for Solidarity” wo kuzana ubufatanye mu bihugu by’imigabane y’abaturanyi nka Asia, Africa, na Latin America mukuzamura iteramber n’ugutahiriza umugozi umwe ku imigabane yombi uko ari itatu.

Mu mwaka 1967, yongeye ashinga umuryango witwa “Latin American Solidarity Organization” wo kuzana amahoro hagati y’ibihugu bya Latin America na Cuba.

Mu mwaka 1970, Castro yakomeje kuzamura izina rye nk’umuvugizi w’ibihugu byombi uko byari bitatu aribyo Angola, Ethiopia, na Yemen; abitera inkunga mu gisirikare cyabyo.

Ntibyatinze amasezerano yari yrasinywe na America U.S. yo kutazateza intambara kuri Cuba yaje kuyarengaho ikomeza gutegura kongera kurwanya ubutegetsi bwa Fide Castro na guverinoma ye mu bundi buryo.

Imyaka myinshi yagiye ishira Fidel Castro yagiye agerwa impfu ariko nta rupfu na rumwe rwamuhitanye muzo bari bagenye ko zizamwica; haba gutegwa ibisasu cyangwa se kuraswa nta na rumwe rwamubashije. Impfu zabashije kumenyekana yasimbutse ni impfu 638 muri rusange.

Ubutegetsi bwa Fidel Castro bwaje gukomeza gushinga imizi abinyujiije mu kubaka ibyumba by’amashuri mashya bigera ku 10,000 kandi byose bizakurangira bigezweho ijana ku ijana kandi yanazamuye ireme ry’uburezi rigera kuri 98% mu gihugu cya Cuba.

Ikindi kandi cyatumye izina rye rikomeza kuvugwa ni uburyo mpuzamahanga bwo kuvura indwara; byagabanyije umubare w’imfu z’abana bapfa ubarirwa mu 1,000 (1.1%). Imiryango yigenga imyinshi yarahagaritswe, ibinyamakuru byigenga nabyo birahagarikwa n’amadini amwe n’amwe araharabikwa.

Castro yakuyeho imitwe yose itarimushyigikiye ku butegetsi bwe abinyujije mu kubica no kubafunga mu magereza atandukanye no kubirukana mu gihugu bamwe bikarangira biyimuye bakajya kuba mu bindi bihugu.

Ngo nubwo nta mubare nyirizina uzwi, Cuba Archive ivuga ko benshi mu bihumbi by’abanyacuba bishwe; abagera ku bihumbi 5,600 bishwe n’intwaro za kirimbuzi. Abenshi mu baturage ba Cuba bishwe ubwo bageragezaga guhunga igihugu mu mwaka 1980. Bamwe baburiye mu migezi nka Canimar River na Tugboat mu 1994.

Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Castro; ibihumbi n’amagana by’abaturage ba Cuba bahunze igihugu, abenshi bahungiye muri Leta ya Florida mu mujyi wa Miami. Abenshi muri abo bahunze igihugu bagihunze mu mwaka 1980. Abasanga 120,000 bahungiye muri Leta zunze ubumwe za America.

Uko Soviet Union yaje kugwa hasi

Nyuma ya 1991 ukugwa kwa Soviet Union byatumye ubukungu bwa Cuba busubira inyuma cyane. Intambara za Castro zatangiye kubura imbaraga zitangira gucika intege.

Nta mavuta yarakinjira mu gihugu agihendutse, za sukari zinjiraga mu gihugu zizanywe na Soviet Union zarahagaze n’ibindi bicuruzwa bitandukanye no kubura akazi ku baturage ba Cuba habaho guta agaciro ku ifaranga ry’igihugu.

Impuzandengo y’ubucuruzi bwakorerwaga mu masoko yo mu gihugu cya Cuba yagabanutseho 85% ku bukungu bw’igihugu. Ariko Castro yari umuhanga ukomeye cyane yakomeje gucunga neza guverinoma mu gihe ubukungu bwa Cuba bwari mu mazi abira.

Castro yasabye ko Leta zunze ubumwe za America zava ku cyemezo zari zarafashe cyo kutagira igicuruzwa na kimwe zongera kugemura mu gihugu cye birangira America ibihakanye yivuye inyuma.

Yahise avuga ngo idolari ry’abanyamerika rikore mu gihugu cye, ubukerarugendo bwakorerwaga mu gihugu cye agenda abushyiraho umupaka ku buryo bugaragara.

Mu mwaka 1996 yasuye Leta zunze ubumwe za America mu buryo bwo kugira ngo abwire impunzi z’abaturage ba Cuba ko bagomba gutahuka mu gihugu cye ari amahoro bagakora imishinga yabo nta rwikekwe.

Mu 2001, nyuma yuko ubukungu bwa Cuba bwari bumaze kwangirika ku buryo bugaragara bitewe na Hurricane Michelle, Castro yatesheje agaciro inkunga za kimuntu zavaga muri U.S. ariko ubuyobozi bwa George W. Bush bwaje kwemera ko bugomba kuzajya bugirana ubwo buhahirane n’igihugu cya Cuba.

Castro akimara kubona ko zimwe mu ndanda zo mu gihugu cye zakoraga ibicanwa zitangiye kugenda zisubira inyuma yahise ategeka ko zigomba guhagarara gukora. Inganda zigera ku 118 yarazifunze, yohereza benshi mu baganga bo mu gihugu cye muri Venezuela kugira ngo bajye bagaburira Cuba ku mavuta yo kurya.

Uko ubutegetsi bwa Fidel Castro bwaje kugenda burangira

Nyuma ya 1990 ibitekerezo bya Castro byagendga birushaho kwiyongera uko yagendaga agera mu zabukuru. Ibibazo bitandukanye by’ubuzima bwe ko butameze neza byari byaragiye bivugwa mu myakayagiye itambuka. Mu mwaka 2006 yaje guhura n’uburwayi bumukomereye cyane, aho Castro yaje kurwara yo kuva amaraso aturutse mu rura rwo mu mara ye birangira bamubaze.

Kuwa 31 Nyakanga 2006 nibwo Castro yahaye murumuna we Raul ububasha ngo abe ayoboye Cuba nka perezida w’agateganyo. Raul yari yarakoranye na mukuru we Castro ku buryo yari yaramugize igikomangoma cye, amuhitamo byemewe n’amategeko ko ashoboye mu 1997.

Castro akimara kubagwa ayo mara icyari gisigaye cyumvikana kandi kinagaragara byari amafoto n’amajwi yafashe wongeyeho amashusho y’inama yitabiraga. Nibyo byari bisigaye bivugwa kuri Castro.

Kuwa 19 Gashyantare 2008 nibwo Fidel Castro warugejeje ku myaka 81 y’amavuko yavuye ku mwanya w’ubuperezida bihoraho, abusigira murumuna we Raul Castro wari ufite imyaka 76 kubera ikibazo cy’uburwayi bwe bwahoragaho yarasigaranye.

Nyuma y’igihe gito, inama nkuru y’igihugu yarateranye yemezako Raul Castro abaye perezida wa Cuba ku mugaragaro, ariko Fidel Castro yasigaye ari umunyamabanga ukomeye w’ishyaka rye ryitwa “Communist Party”.

Muri Mata 2011, nibwo amakuru yacicikanye avuga ko Fidel Castro yarekuye ubuyobozi burundu ko ishyaka rigomba gutora undi muyobozi wo kurihagararira. Raul Castro yaje gutsinda ku mugaragaro aya matora aba umunyamabanga mukuru w’ishyaka “Communist Party” asimbuye mukuru we Fidel Castro.

Mu bubasha bwe yarafite yahise ashyiraho umwe mu bo batanyije kurwanira igihugu Jose Ramon Machado Ventura nk’umunyamabanga we umwungirije ku butegetsi. Fidel Castro yavuze ko hari hashize imyaka igera kuri itanu yeguye ku butegetsi bw’igihugu.

Fidel Castro akiva ku butegetsi yatangiye kujya yandika amwe mu mateka n’urugendo by’ubuzima bwe, uburambe n’ibitekerezo bitandukanye ubwo yarari ku mwanya w’umukuru w’igihugu cya Cuba.

Castro yatangiriye ku gitabo gikubiyemo amwe mu mateka y’ubuzima bwe yise “Reflections of Fidel”. Mu 2007 asohora ikindi gitabo yise “My Lifewas” gisonabuye ngo “uko ubuzima bwanjye bwagenze”.

Kuva muri uyu mwaka kugeza muri Mutarama 2012, Castro Fidel nta kndi gitabo yanditse nyuma yabwo. Uku kutongera kwandika kwa Fidel byatumye abantu benshibongera kuvuga ko yongeye agahura n’indwara imukoreye cyane ariko mu by’ukuri ntibyari ukuri guhamye.

Fidel Castro yakomeje kuzirikanwa nk’umuntu ukomeye cyane mu gihugu cye ndetse no ku isi hose muri rusange. Castro yakomeje kugenda abasha guhura na bamwe mu bayobozi bo ku isi bakomeye cyane nka Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ukomoka muri Iran, mu mwaka 2012 ubwo yaraje mu ruzinduko yagiriye mu gihugu cya Cuba.

Muri Werurwe 2012, Papa Benedict mu ruzinduko yagiriye mu gihugu cya Cuba yifuje kuganira na Fidel Castro nk’umuntu wabaye igikomerezwa ku isi, barahuye baganira mu ibanga.

Muri Nzeri 2015, Papa Francis nawe yahuye na Fidel Castro bagirana ikiganiro mu ibanga. Nyamara mu myaka yose Barack Obama yasuye igihug cya Cuba ntabwo yigeze agirana ikiganiro na Castro Fidel. Castro yagize ati, “ntidukeneye ko dufashwa n’abanzi bacu”.

Fidel Castro yapfuye kuwa 25 Ugushyingo 2016 afite imyaka 90. Urupfu rwe rwatangajwe na murumuna we Raul Castro, abinyujije kuri televisiyo y’igihugu cya Cuba. Urupfu rwe rwitabiriwe n’abantu benshi cyane ubariyemo abanyagihugu, umurambo we washyinguriwe I Havana ari naho ibiganiro bye byinshi yabitangiraga ubwo yari ku butegetsi.

Kuwa 29 Ugushyingo 2016 wari umunsi wo gukura ikiriyo cye; wari umunsi ukomeye cyane. Wari witabiriwe n’abakuru b’ibihugu bitandukanye: Nicolas Maduro perezida wa Venezuela, Evo Morales perezida wa Bolivia, Jacob Zuma perezida wa South Africa na Robert Mugabe perezida wa Zimbabwe.

Amagana n’amagana by’abaturage ba Cuba baririmbiye indirimbo Fidel Castro bagira bati, “Yo Soy Fidel” bisonanuye ngo (I Am Fidel= Ndi Fidel) na “Viva Fidel” bisobanuye ngo (Long Live Fidel=Urakabaho igihe kirekire Fidel).

Mu gihe yari amarira menshi muri Havana, abaturage ba Cuba bari bari mu buhungiro bari bari kubyinira ku rukoma ngo umwanzi wacu yagiye yari yarigize umunyembaraga nyinshi, yariyemeje kwica abantu no gufunga bamwe muri twebwe no gutandukanya imiryango yacu.

Source: www.biography.com

Yanditswe na Bizimana Jean Damascene/Muhabura.rw


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