Yashyizweho kuri21 September, 2018 | 08:45

Sobanukirwa uburyo umuperezi wa Amerika yagiye asimbuka urumpfu

Mu bayobozi bakomeye ku isi bacungirwa umutekano wo ku rwego rwo hejuru ni Perezida wa Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika n’umushumba wa Kiriziya gatorika ku isi (Papa). Impamvu aba bayobozi bacungirwa umutekano n’uko akenshi usanga hari udutsiko dukomeye urugero nk’u twivangura ry’amoko (racism) abacuraza ibiyobyabwenge, ibyihebe n’abandi baba bafite inyungu zitandukanye ndetse harimo no gushaka kumenyekana (Urugero uwarashe Papa Yohani Paulo waII).Aba bayobozi bakuru baba babavangira nabo rero bagashaka kubikiza kuko nabo baba bafite imbaraga.

Impamvu rero uyu mutekano ukazwa nuko aba baperezida baba barabonye aho bagenzi babo baraswa cyangwa barusimbuka ariko bari barashwe. Nubwo Amerika ishyira imbaraga nyinshi kurinda perezida wabo ariko biranga bikaba iby’ ubusa kuko nabashaka guhitana aba baperezida nabo ntibaba boroshye dore ko rimwe na rimwe uwo mugambi bawugeraho bakabarasa.

Muri iyi nyandiko turarebera hamwe bamwe mu baperezida b’Amerika bagiye bahura n’uwo mugambi wo kuraswa kandi barinzwe ariko Imana ikaba ariyo ikinga akaboko.

Perezida dutangiriyeho ni uwabaye perezida wa 40 kuva icyo gihugu gishyizeho demokarasi yo kwitorera ba perezida ariwe Ronald Wilson Reagan akaba ari umwe mu ba perezida 2 bubatse izina muri icyo gihugu cy’Amerika, kubera ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa yakoze tuzakurebera hamwe.

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Perezida Ronald Wilson Reagan

Perezida Reagan yavutse itariki 6 Gashyantare 1911 avukira ahitwa Tampico Illinois avukira muri kamwe mu duce twari dutuwe n’abaturage bacyennye bafite imibereho yo gushakisha nta mirimo bagira ifatika . Kubera ko ababyeyi be bahoraga bimuka bashakisha imibereho, nyuma mu mwaka 1920 baje kwimukira mu mujyi wa Dixon aho mu Ntara ya Illinois aho se yaje gufungura iduka ricuruza inkweto.

Mu mwaka 1928 nibwo Reagan yarangije amashuri yisumbuye (High Shool) mu ishuri ryitwa Dixon High School. Arangiza kuri icyo kigo Reagan yakundaga imikino ngororamubiri (sport), kandi agakina n’amakinamico (artist) cyangwa ‘umusani’ mu mvugo yubu aribyo byaje kumuhesha kuba Perezida wa leta y’abanyeshuri aho ku ishuri. Akiri umunyeshuri mu gihe cy’ubushyuye yajyaga akora akazi ko kurohora abantu babaga barohamye boga (Life guard) ku ngengero za ahitwa Lowell Park akabona udufaranga twamufashaga mu buzima bw’ishuri.

Muri uko kuba umukinnyi w’amakina mico,yaje gukundwa cyane bigeraho ishuri rikuru rya Eureka College ryaje gushimishwa nayo makinamico yakinaga riramusonera rimuha umwanya wo kwiga muri iryo shuri (Scholarship). Ageze aho ku kigo Reagani yibanze ku masomo y’ubukungu , n’ubumenyi rusange kandi ari nako aserukira ikigo mu mikino inyuranye bituma mu mwaka 1932 ubwo yararangizaga aho ku kigo yahise abona akazi ko gukora ikiganiro cy’imikino kuri TV ahitwa Iowa.

Kubera gukora akazi k’itangazamakuru kubijyanye n’imikino mu mwaka 1937 yasinye amasezerano y’imyaka irindwi yo gukina amakinamico (filme) muri kampani yitwa Warner Brothers Movie Studio. Ali muriyo kampani yashoboye gukina amafilime menshi hari ayo yagaragayemo cyane nka, “Knute Rockne, All American” yasohotse 1940 na “Kings Row” yo 1942.

Mu Mwaka 1942 Reagan yashakanye n’umukobwa nawe wakinaga amafilime witwaga Jane Wyman babyarana umwana w’umukobwa witwa Maureen. Nk’uko urushako rw’abantu b’ibyamamare (abasitari) rudakunda kuramba yaje gutandukanye nuwo mugore mu mwaka 1948. Kuva 1947 kugeza 1952 Reagan yari perezida w’ishyirahamwe ry’abakinnyi ba filime ni muri urwo rwego yaje guhura n’undi mukobwa w’umukinnyi wa filime nawe witwaga Nancy Davis, umutima we umaze kumushima abona ko Nancy yazamwibagiza akababaro yagize atandukana na Jane nibwo 1952 bashakanye babyarana abana babiri umukobwa witwa Patricia n’umuhungu witwa Ronald.

Nyuma yo kuba ikimenywabose mu gukina filime no gukora ikiganiro cy’imikino byagezaho akajya akora ikiganiro kihariye kuri Televiziyo kijyanye n’amakina mico. Mu mwaka 1964 Reagan yahisemo kujya mu ruhando rwa Politiki aho yasomye disikuru bwa mbere yashimishije benshi ubwo yamamazaga umukandida ku mwanya w’ubuperezida mu ishyaka rya Republican witwaga Barry Goldwater.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri yiyamamarije kuyobora intara ya Califoniya nk’uko byagenze kuri Arnold Schwarzenigger azagutsinda aba Governeri w’iyo ntara ayiyobora manda ibyiri kuko no 1970 yariyamamaje aratsinda. Nyuma yaho mu mwaka 1968 yaje gushaka kwiyamamariza umwanya wa Perezida wa Amerika aciye mu ishyaka ry’aba Republican ariko ntiyashyigikirwa, ndetse 1976 nabwo yatanze kandidatire ntiyagera kure ariko nyuma mu mwaka 1980 ntabwo yarambiwe yahise atanga indi kandidatire aho uwo mwaka wamuhire akajya ku rutonde rw’abakandida biyamamariza ku mwanya wa Perezida.

Mu matora yo muri uwo mwaka Reagan yashoboye gutsinda ayo matora aho yahatanaga na Perezida Jimmy Carter wari icyamamare kandi akundwa n’abanyamerika benshi ariko ubukungu bw’Amerika muri iyo myaka bwari bwarazahaye cyane. Muri disikuru ye ubwo yarahiraga kuyobora Amerika bwa mbere, yabwiye Abanyamerika ko Leta Atari cyo gisubizo cy’ibibazo byabo ahubwo Leta yabo niyo ifite ikibazo cy’ubukungu budahagaze neza, kandi asaba Abanyamerika gushyira hamwe no kwituma kugirango bagarure icyubahiro cy’igihugu cyabo mu rwego rw’igihugu ndetse no mu rwego rwisi, kuko Amerika muri yo myaka yaritangiye guta ubusugire bwayo.

Kuri manda ye, Perezida Reagan yatangiye akuraho ingengo y’imari y’ amafaranga Leta yakoreshaga aho we yitaga ko atari ngombwa, agabanya n’imisoro kubacuruzi no kubashoramari b’imbere mu gihugu kugira ngo bazahure ubukungu bw’Amerika bwari bwazahaye. Ariko yaje kongera bije (budget) ya ministeri y’ingabo kugirango igihugu kigire ingabo ziri kurwego rugezweho n’ibikoresho kabuhariwe. Kubera ubwo bwitange bwa Perezida Reagan ubukungu bw’Amerika bwaje kuzamuka kiba igihugu cy’ubukire mu gihe cy’imyaka irindwi yose yo ku ngoma ye.

Indi ntego nyamukuru ya Perezida Reagan kwari uguhangana na Leta y’Abasoviete yari Uburusiya y’icyo gihe yafatwaga ‘nk’agace k’iterabwoba”Kugirango ahangane nicyo kibazo yashyize imbaraga mu gukora ibisasu birasa kure (Long Range) ari nako akomeza gushyira imbaraga mu gisirikare.

Mu bubanyi n’amahanga Perezida Reagan yatangaga impfashanyo mu bihugu by’Afrika, Aziya n’Amerka y’amajyepfo (Latin America) biri munzira y’amajyambere ari mu rwego rwo gukumira kugirango ubukomunisti budakwira muri ibyo bihugu Uburusiya bukagira imbaraga kuko nibwo bari bahanganye mu mbaraga. Ikigeretse kuri ibyo mu mwaka 1983 yakoresheje ibisasu birasa kure byo mu kirere byo kurinda igihugu cye atinya guterwa n’ibisasu birasa kure by’Abarusiya bicyo gihe bari bafite.

Mu rwego rwo kurinda umutekano w’ibihugu by’Uburasirazuba bwo hagati (Middle East) mu mwaka 1982 Perezida Reagan yohereje itsinda ry’abasirikare n’amato ya gisirikare 800 kurinda umutekano muri Lebani na Beirut ari naho haje kuva amafoto yakoze filime yitwa “Delta Force” na “Missing in Action” yakinnywe mu buryo bwa gihanga na Chuck Norris.

Muri uwo mwaka Perezida Reagan yategetse ingabo ze zifata ikirwa cya Caribbean I Granada nyuma yaho inyeshyamba zagenderaga ku matwara ya Carl Marxis (Marxism) zari zarigaruriye icyo kirwa. Reagan yakomeje kurwanya umubano mubi wari hagati y’igihugu cye na Muammar al- Ghaddafi wa Libiya na Fider Castro wa Cuba.

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Uwitwa John Hinckley Jr niwe washatse kwica Perezida Reagan

Muri manda ye ya Kabiri yashyize imbaraga cyane muri Dipolomasi hagati ye na perezida Mikhail Gorbachev wa Leta zunze ubumwe z’Abasoviete kubera uwo mwete wo kwitanga kuri diporomasi y’Uburusiya, mu mwaka 1987 Amerika n’Uburusiya baje gusinyana amasezerano y’amateka yo kubuza gukora ibisasu birasa kure no gukora intwaro z’ubumara za kirimbuzi (Nuclear weapons) mu bihugu byombi, kandi agira inama Gorbachev guha uburenganzira Ubudage bw’iburasirazuba gusenya urukuta rwa Berlin.

Nyuma y’amezi 29 Reagan agiriye inama Gorbachev guha abaturage b’abadage b’iburasirazuba gusenya urukuta rwa Berlin kugirango batandukane n’ubutegetsi bw’Abarusiya mu mwaka 1990 Mikahail Gorbachev yemeye ko urwo rukuta rusanywa ari nk’ikimenyetso cyo kurangira ku ubutegetsi bw’Abarusiya mu Budage bw’Uburasirazuba.

Uko kwiyegereza ibihugu kwe mu rwego mpuzamahanga ni mbaraga nyinshi yakoreshaga, nibwo yashatse no guhirika Leta ya Kisalamu ya Iran acishije mu gihugu cya Iraq ku butegetsi bwa Saadan Hussein icyo kintu cyatumye aba umwe mu baperezida babiri bakomeye babayeho muri Amerika.

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Uwitwa John Hinckley Jr niwe washatse kwica Perezida Reagan

Ariko nk’uko Bibiliya ivuga ko uwicisha inkota nawe ariyo izamwica, ku itariki 30 Werurwe1981 ,ubwo Perezida Reagan n’abajyanama be bari bavuye I Washington Hilton Hotel mu nama mu buryo butunguranye humvikanye urusaku rw’amasasu bituma umwe mu barinzi be atekereza vuba gusunikira Perezida mu modoka ye yo mu bwoko bwa Limoulsine.

Bari muriyo modoka abarinzi be ba hafi nibwo babonye ko Perezida Reagan yarashwe, bamwihutisha ku bitaro . Bamugejeje kwa Muganga, abaganga basanze isasu ryashwanyuje igihaha cya Perezida ndetse hafi yo gufata umutima, ariko basanga Imana yakinze akaboko Reagan aba ararusimbutse. Na nyuma y’ibyumweru amaze kuvurwa yasubiye mu kazi akomeza imirimo ye nk’ibisanzwe.

Uwitwa John Hinckley Jr niwe washatse kwica Perezida Reagan, kandi usibye na Perezida, uwo mugabo yari yamishe amasasu ku bandi bantu batatu bari hafi ya Perezida ariko bo ntibakomereka cyane. Nyuma yaho John afatiwe yaje guhatwa ibibazo n’inzego zibishinzwe baje gusanga uwo John yari umurwayi wo mu mutwe ariko bagacyeka ko haba hari n’abantu bari babyihishe inyuma hatugwa agatoki Leta z’Abarabu ndetse na bandi banzi be bo muri Politiki.Uwo John yaje gukatirwa igifungo cya Burundi naho Reagan yaje kwitaba Imana azize urw’ikirago ku itariki 5 Kamena 2004 i Ber –Air Los Angeles (USA).

Salongo Richard


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