Yashyizweho kuri10 October, 2019 | 11:45

Igice cya3 :Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya

Ubumwe bwa repubulika za gisosiyalisiti z’Abasoviyeti (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR cg Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, URSS) zari ihuriro rya Repubulika 15 zunze ubumwe, zihuje ku mugaragaro.

Muri iki gice harimo umwihariko kuko turaza no kuvuga ku ntambara ya kabiri y’isi ahagaragayemo ku ruhare runi umugabo wamenywe n’isi yose nanubu atazibagirana mu mitwe y’abantu Hitler.

Ubushize twasubikiye ahavuga ko,mu Ukuboza 1936, Stalin yatoresheje itegekonshinga rishya ariko aza gutinywa n’abandi bayobozi bituma yitwa intiti ariko abanyamategeko abaje gusesenguye inyandiko bavuze ko iryo tegekonshinga nta cyo ryari rivuze ku baturage kuko ryari rikubiyemo amategeko y’icengezamatwara ye. Abasomye igitabo Animal Farm cya George Orwell, izina ry’Ubwanditsi (Amazina nyakuri, Eric Arthur Blair) kigaragaza neza mu buryo bw’amarenga ko hakoreshwa inyamaswa nyamara bavuga abantu.

Dukomeje:Noneho mu mategeko arindwi yagenganga inyamaswa muri icyo gitabo harimo rimwe ryagiraga riti: Inyamaswa zose zirangana (All Animals are equal) nk’uko nyine byari biri ibihugu bikishyira hamwe.

Gusa nyuma zimwe zimaze gusaza haje inyamaswa ebyiri z’ingurube, Iyitwa Napoleon n’iyitwa Snowball ziba inyobozi. Napoleon ari Stalin, Snowball ari Leon Trotsky waje guhambirizwa. Napoleon isigara iyoboye igategeka imbwa zabwaguye utanga ibibwana bigatozwa ubugome bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru, byakura bikaba ari byo bizajya birinda Napoleon.

Nyuma rya tegeko ryaje guhinduka inyamaswa ntiziba zigihwanye, ryahindutse ko: Inyamaswa zose zingana ariko zimwe zikangana kurusha izindi; (All animals are equal, but some of them are more equal than others.)

Uko ni ko Staline yashyizeho itegekonshinga rye muri rusange agahindura icyari inzozi za benshi mu Basoviyeti bari bazi ko bazahora ku ndeshyo imwe nta wurusha undi, nta wukandamiza undi. Abenshi batangiye kwicuza kuguma muri wa muryango wabo wa Repubulika zunze ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti.

Mu mpera z’1930, ni ukuvuga ubwo intambara ya kabiri y’isi yasaga n’ikomanga, Joseph Stalin yigiriye ku ruhande rwa Axis Powers, ni ukuvuga uruhande rw’ibihugu nk’Ubudage, Ubuyapani n’ubutaliyani bari bahanganye na Allied Powers, yarimo ibihugu nk’Ubwongereza, Ubufaransa, n’Ubushinwa.

Icyo gihe Stalin yatangiye kugirana ibiganiro by’ubufatanye mu bya Gisirikare ndetse tariki 23 Kanama 1939, basinyana amasezerano yiswe Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact yitiriwe ba Ministre b’ububanye n’amahanga bayasinye Joachim von Ribbentrop na Vyacheslav Molotov. Ni amasezerano ya kuba nta gihugu cyashoza imirwano ku kindi, mbese ni amasezerano yo kudahemukirana.

Intambara ya kabiri y’isi

Ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti bwari bufite imbaraga zigaragarira benshi gusa bavuga ko nta ntambara Abasoviyeti bashobora gushoza ku Ubudage kuko bari barasinyanye amasezerano yo kudashozanyaho intambara.

Gusa byaje kurangira ahubwo ubudage ari bwo butangije intambara ku Basoviyeti hari tariki 22 Kamena 1941; ubudage bwabonaga niburamuka bwikijije Abasoviyeti buri bube bwamaze gufata mu Ntoki Uburayi bwose na Aziya. Abasoviyeti bise urugamba rw’ibanze n’abadage "Great Patriotic War", cg se Intambara ikomeye igaragaza gukunda igihugu.

Ingabo zitukura, ni ko igisirikare cy’abasoviyeti kitwaga, zarahiriwe zifashijwe n’itumba rikomeye, Ingabo za Hitler zitsindwa urugamba rwa Moscow rwari rukomeye cyane kuko Abadage bari bakomeye cyane, bakomwe mu nkokora n’itumba rikomeye, Inzara, ibikoresho birashira, byari bikomeye cyane.

Urugamba rwa Stalingrad, rwabaye ikotaniro kuko rwatangiye kuva tariki 22 Kamena 1941 kugeza Tariki 9 Gicurasi 1945.

Abadage bakoresheje imbaraga nyinshi muri uru rugamba runafatwa nka rumwe mu ngamba zikomeye zabayeho ku Isi cyane ko amateka anarugaragaza nk’urwa mbere rwarwanywe n’abantu benshi ku Isi. Kuko Bakomanda bakuru bari bahanganye bombi bari bafite ingabo zibarirwa mu Ma miliyoni. Urugamba rutangira mu 1941, Joseph Stalin yari afite ingabo 2,680,000 mu gihe uwo bari bahanganye Adolph Hitler, yari afite 3,767,000.

Gusa urugamba rwagiye kurangira mu 1945, Stalin yaragiye yigarurira ingabo nyinshi mu bihugu byo mu burasirazuba bw’Uburayi byari byarigaruriwe n’Ubudage kuva mu 1939.

Stalin yasoje afite ingabo 6,410,000, ku ruhande rw’Ubudagi hasigaye 1,960,000. Ubundi Abasoviyeti bababazwa no kuba ari bo bapfukamishije Ubudage bakinjira mu Murwa mukuru Berlin baririmba instinzi ariko bakabona USA ari igihugu cy’igihangange kubarusha.

Ikindi gihugu cyari gikomeye ni ubuyapani. Abasoviyeti bahise bashoza urugamba kuri Manchukuo n’ahandi hose hagenzurwaga n’Ubuyapani tariki 9 Kanama, 1945. Nyuma Ubuyapani na bwo bwaje kumanika amaboko binaganisha ku musozo intambara ya Kabiri y’isi.

Abasoviyeti ku rundi ruhande batakaje abantu benshi mu ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi, kuko babarirwa muri miliyoni 27.

USA baza mu ntambara nyuma yo kwenderezwa n’Ubuyapani mu cyiswe attack on Pearl Harbor tariki 7 Ukuboza 1941, zaje zijya ku uruhande rw’Abasoviyeti. Ibihugu bikaze bine byari bigiye ku ruhande rumwe; Ubwongereza, USA, Ubushinwa n’Abasoviyeti; bahawe icyo gihe izina rya Big Four.

Leta zunze ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti zari zimaze kubaka Izina ndetse zinjira mu bihugu bikomeye mu 1945 cyashyizwe mu bihugu 5 bihoraho bifite ijambo mu kanama ka ONU gashinzwe umutekano.

Ndetse nyuma yo gukomeza kuzamura ubukungu, igisirikare, ikoranabuhanga, inkunga ku bihugu bizamuka mu iterambere n’indi mirongo migari ya Politiki byazamuye izina, igihugu kihinduka icya kabiri mu buhanganye inyuma ya USA zari zarungukiye bikomeye mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi.

Mu bindi Abasoviyeti bazamukiyemo cyane ni ubushakashatsi mu by’ikoranabuhanga, ubumenyi bw’ikirere n’isanzure muri rusange ndetse no gukora intwaro.

Tuzakomeza ntuzacikwe ibikurikiraho.....................

Richard Salongo/MUHABURA.RW


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