Yashyizweho kuri3 October, 2019 | 12:51

Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya[Igice cya Mbere]

Ubumwe bwa repubulika za gisosiyalisiti z’Abasoviyeti (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR cg Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, URSS) zari ihuriro rya Repubulika 15 zunze ubumwe, zihuje ku mugaragaro.

Hari tariki 30 Ukuboza 1922 ubwo ibihugu byasinyaga amasezerano yo kwihuza. Bayasinyiye I Moscow mu Burusiya. Ubumwe bwaje guhinduka ubutane tariki 26 Ukuboza, 1991.

Izi repubulika zunze ubumwe zaje gusenyuka mu 1991 aho zari ziyobowe na Mikhail Gorbachev ziri ku buso bwa 22,402,200 km² zituwe n’abaturage 293,047,571. Izina “Soviet” rikomoka mu kirusiya rikaba risobanura, Inama nkuru, Inama rusange, Ubumwe, amasezerano, n’andi asa n’ayo.

Amateka y’inkomoko y’igihugu cy’Uburusiya

Kuva mu 1721 hari ubwami bw’amarusiya bwayoborwaga n’umwami w’abami wahabwaga izina rya Tsar. Ubu bwami bwaje guhirikwa mu kwezi kwa Kabiri 1917. Tsar wa nyuma Nicholas II, yarahiritswe hashingiwe ku kuba abantu barasaba impinduka mu gihugu.

Ubwo hahise hajyaho Guverinoma y’inzibacyuho na yo yaje nyuma guhirikwa n’abo mu ishyaka ry’Aba Bolshevik ryari riyobowe na Vladimir Lenin. Ryari ishyaka rikomeye kandi ririmo abanyagihugu benshi cyane kuri icyo gihe bari mu ishyaka rya Gisosiyalisiti Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).

Guhirika Tsar Nicholas II byaroroshye cyane kuko n’isi ubwayo yatigiswaga n’intambara ya mbere y’isi yaganaga ku umusozo mu 1917, kuko intambara yo yatangiye tariki 28 Nyakanga 1914 amasezerano yo kuyihagarika asinywa tariki 11 Ugushyingo 1918.

Mu gihugu habaye intambara zikomeye, amaraso ameneka ari menshi birangira Tsar Nicholas II ahiritswe ndetse we n’umuryango we ni ukuvuga umugore we Tsarina Alexandra n’abana be batanu ndetse n’abari babaherekeje bahunga biciwe mu mujyi wa Yekaterinburg hari tariki 17 ukwa karindwi 1918.

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Iyi niyo karita iranga ahahoze ari ubutaka bwa Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya

Tariki 28 Ukuboza 1922, ibihugu byari mu bwami bw’Uburusiya n’ibituranyi byabyo byagenderaga ku mahame ya Gisosiyalisti byanzuye kwishyira hamwe bikayoborwa mu uburyo bumwe.

Ibihugu by’Uburusiya, Transcaucase, Ukraine, Byelorussia bifata iyambere mu gushyiraho Repubulika zunze ubumwe bwabo nk’abasoviyeti kuko bari bafite amahame asa. Tariki ya Mbere Gashyantare, 1924, ubumwe bwabo bwemerwa n’Ubwami bw’Abongereza ndetse hemezwa n’itegekonshinga ryabo rya mbere.

Icyo gihe urugamba rwari urwo gukaza ivugurura mu bukungu, inganda, na Politiki. Icyo gihe ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti bwayoborwaga n’inama nkuru zitandukanye ku kintu runaka, izo nama zikemeza ibintu bigashyirwaho umukono na Vladimir Lenin.

Izo nama zaje kwemeza ikintu cyakunzwe cyen n’abaturage ubwo hashyirwagaho umugambi GOELRO plan, wari ugamije kugeza amashanyarazi mu gice cyose gisinye kuba mu bumwe bw’abasoviyeti. Ibi byari muri gahunda z’imyaka itanu itanu bagenderagaho biza kurangira mu 1931, amashanyarazi yarageze mu gihugu hose.

Kuva Repubulika z’Abasoviyeti zakiyemeza kwishyira hamwe, zanzuye ko habaho ishyaka rimwe rukumbi, rya Gikomunisiti gusa nyuma haba ikiswe "War communism" byari nk’ubwumvikane buke mu bukungu, hanzuwe ko hagira abantu bake bagira inganda z’abikorera na zo zigakorana na Leta yo iba igomba kugira ibintu byose mu nganda, ubukungu n’ibindi.

Ibyo kugira ishyaka rimwe, Abasoviyeti bavugaga ko ari muri gahunda yo kugendera ku murongo umwe ngo batazigera bacwa urwaho n’abakapitalisiti bakababibamo politiki y’ubwikunde. Upfuye ari umukuru w’inama nkuru yagombaga gusimburwa byemejwe na "troika" cyangwa se Abakuru b’inama zitandukanye bahuriye hamwe. Ni na ko byagenze mu 1924 ubwo Vladimir Lenin yatabarukaga.

Tariki 3 Mata, 1922, "troika" yarateranye yemeza Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin nk’umunyamabanga mukuru w’ishyaka rya Gikomunisiti ry’Abasoviyeti, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Tuzakomeza...............

Chief Editor/MUHABURA.RW


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