Yashyizweho kuri4 November, 2019 | 11:19

Igice Cya 5 :Ibintu Wamenya Kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse Igihugu Cy’igihangange Nk’Uburusiya

Ubumwe bwa repubulika za gisosiyalisiti z’Abasoviyeti (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR cg Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, URSS) zari ihuriro rya Repubulika 15 zunze ubumwe, zihuje ku mugaragaro.

Ubushize twasubikiye aho Nikita Khrushchev yemeranije na USA gukura muri Cuba za missile yari yashyizeyo zo kurimbura USA,ubwo Abanyamerika na bo bagakura izo bari bafite muri Turkiya n’Ubutaliyani. Gusa uyu mwumvikano na Amerika wamugabanirije ikizere n’ubukaka bwe, abayobozi bakuru mu ishyaka batangira kumunenga ndetse baza no kumukura ku butegetsi asa n’ugambaniwe n’abo mu nkoramutima ze hari tariki 14 Ukwakira 1964.

Dukomeje:Ukudindira gukomeye kw’Abasoviyeti

Nyuma y’uko Khrushchev yirukanywe nta mpamba igihugu cyagize ukudindira gukomeye mu bukungu n’imibanire y’abishyize hamwe bakarema Leta Zunze ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti. Muri icyo gihe hayoboye Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov na Konstantin Chernenko.

Nikita akimara kwirukanwa hagarutse bwa buyobozi bukomatanije Leonid Brezhnev akayobora nk’umunyamabanga mukuru, Alexei Kosygin nka Minisitiri w’intebe naho Nikolai Podgorny akaba nk’umukuru w’inama nyobozi gusa bigeze mu 1970, Brezhnev yigira umuyobozi w’ikirenga w’Abasoviyeti.

Mu 1968, Abasoviyeti bateye Czechoslovakia bashaka kuburizamo impinduramatwara yari yiswe (Le Printemps de Prague cg Prague Spring) yari igamije guha rubanda uburenganzira bwo kugira ubushabitsi runaka bakora byose ntibibe ibya Leta.

Alexander Dubček wari watangije impinduramatwara muri Czechoslovakia yahaye abaturage ubwigenge n’uburenganzira mu guhitamo ibibakorerwa mu buhinzi, mu bukungu, mu kugira ijambo n’ibindi birimo gutangiza itangazamakuru ritari irya Leta, guha abaturage uburenganzira mu gutanga ibitekero n’andi mahame ya Demokarasi.

Ndetse yari yanemeje ko niba abaturage bumva bakwiye bakihitiramo hakabaho ibihugu bitatu hashingiwe ku byo bahuje n’ibibatandukanya ariko bakagira ubuyobozi bwo hejuru bumwe.

Ibyo byababaje cyane Leonid Brezhnev agabayo ibitero hapfa benshi abandi barahunga ariko n’ubundi byaje kurangira igihugu kivutsemo ibihugu bibiri mu mahoro Czech Republic na Slovakia hari tariki 1 Mutarama, 1993; Leta zunze ubumwe z’abasoviyeti zari zarasenyutse. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev yapfuye tariki 10 Ukwakira 1982, asigira abandi.

Leonid Brezhnev amaze gupfa ababiri bamusimbuye Yuri Andropov w’imyaka 68 yapfuye bidateye kabiri asimburwa na Konstantin Chernenko wari ufite imyaka 72 nawe nta myaka ibiri yamaze ku butegetsi, igihugu gikomeza kudindira haza n’impuha ko hari leta zimwe zashakaga kwiyomora kuko ngo zabonaga ahazaza h’abasoviyeti hakomeje kubudika umwijima cyane ko n’umwimerere batangiranye wari warafunguwe.

Bahisemo Mikhail Gorbachev, wakoze impinduka nyinshi mu bukungu, no mu buyobozi bw’ishyaka muri politiki ye yise glasnost aho yahaga rugari abantu bakagera ku makuru nyuma y’imyaka mirongo bibujijwe na Leta.

Gorbachev yasaga n’ugeza ku musozo intambara y’ubutita. Mu 1988 yahise yanzura kureka intambara yari imaze imyaka 9 muri Afghanistan, ndetse ategeka ko ingabo zigaruka iwabo.

Ikindi ni uko yanze gukomeza kohereza ingabo mu duce tw’inshuti twabaga tugiye mu rugamba ndetse biharurira inzira impinduramatwara n’imyigaragambyo yo mu 1989, urukuta rwa Berlin ruteshwa agaciro, Ubudage bw’Uburasirazuba n’Uburengerazuba biba igihugu kimwe, icyari cyariswe (Iron Curtain cg rideau de fer) gikurwaho; wari umupaka wahabanyaga Ibihugu bicuditse n’Abasoviyeti ndetse n’ibipfukamira Amerika.

Umupaka wari ugizwe n’ubutaka butagira nyirabwo (Nomman’s Land) habaga harinzwe cyane hateze za mine hakikijwen’abafite intwaro ziremereye.

Icyo gihe Leta zitari nke zatangiye gushaka kwiyomora kuko n’ubundi ingingo ya 72 y’itegekonshinga ry’Abasoviyeti ryarabyemeraga icyo gihe. Gusa bavuga ko igihugu runaka kizajya cyiyomora ari uko abaturage ge bacyo 2/3 batoye yego muri kamarampaka.

Mu 1989 Uburusiya nka Leta yarutaga izindi zose bunafite hafi kimwe cya kabiri cy’abaturage bose bwatoye Boris Yeltsin nk’ubuhagarariye mu Basoviyeti bishyize hamwe. Ndetse tariki 12 Kamena, 1990 Congres yabwo ivuga ko uburusiya bwigenga ku butaka bwabwo kurusha uko bwategekwa n’ubumwe bw’abasoviyeti.

Tariki 17 Werurwe, 1991 hakozwe kamarampaka y’imbaturamugabo yagombaga kwemeza isenyuka cg se igumaho rya Leta zunze ubumwe z’abasoviyeti muri Leta icyenda gusa, ahandi bari banze kugira kuyitabira.

Gusa na bwo Gorbachev ntibyamuhiriye mu bihugu byinshi hari ikibazo bamaze kwinjirwano no kwigenga n’ubwo abaturage bari batoye ko Ubumwe bugumaho. Gusa bigeze mu mpeshyi ya 1991, byasaga n’aho ibihugu 8 gusa ari byo bishyigikiye Ubumwe ibindi binyotewe no kwigenga gusa nyine nta kundi amasezerano yo kuvugurura ubumwe yagombaga gusinywa mu kwa Munani mu 1991. Ese yarasinywe? Ntibahiriwe n’isinywa ryayo.

Urwego rw’ubutasi KGB n’abayobozi muri guverinoma bari batsimbaraye ku mahame ya kera y’Abasoviyeti, bateguye uburyo bahirika ubutegetsi Gorbachev. Ntibari banyuzwe n’amasezerano yendaga gusinywa kandi bananengaga politiki ya Gorbachev.

Ihirika ku ubutegetsi ryarapfubye ndetse nyuma y’iminsi ibiri Gorbachev agaruka ku ubutegetsi, ahenshi amaraso yamenetse cyane, gusa byateje akaduruvayo cyane ubumwe bwajegeye ndetse iyo Coup d’etat yapfubye ifatwa nk’imbarutso yo gusenyuka kwa burundu kw’Abasoviyeti ndetse n’igisa n’ikinegu ku ishyaka CPSU (Communist party of Soviet Union).

Byagaragaraga ko Gorbachev nta mbaraga agifite, ahubwo zari zisigaye mu bahagarariye Leta runaka mu ubumwe. Ndetse mu kwa munani amasezerano ntiyasinywa, Leta za Latvia na Estonia zitangaza ubwigenge busesuye kuko Lithuania ni yo yari yabikoze mbere mu 1990.

Gorbachev yahise yegura ku mwanya nk’umunyamabanga mukuru w’ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti mu mpera z’ukwa munani 1991 ndetse bisa nk’aho n’ibikorwa by’ishyaka bihagaze burundu bivuze ko ubutegetsi bwari bugeze ku umusozo, yari Asigaranye Uburusiya avukamo kandi na bwo bwari bufite Yeltsin, wari waratowe nka Perezida mu kwa Karindwi, 1991.

Tuzakomeza ntuzacikwe ibikurikiraho.....................

Ibice byabaje:<Igice cya3 :Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya
<Igice cya 2:Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya
< Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya[Igice cya Mbere]

AMATORA: Muraho neza bavandi! Ni mwinjire kuri iyi Link http://dja2019.rgb.rw nimwagera aho babaza ikinyamakuru mukunda gusoma mwandike Muhabura.rw ubwo muraba mugihaye amahirwe yo kwitwara neza mu marushanwa.

Murakoze.

Richard Ruhumuriza/MUHABURA.RW


Tanga igitecyerezo

Ibitekerezo


Tanga igitekerezo


Izindi nkuru

Inkuru zikunzwe