Yashyizweho kuri26 January, 2017 | 08:04

Dore muri make amateka y’intwari twitegura kwibuka

Intwali z’u Rwanda zigabanyijemo ibyiciro bitatu: Imanzi, Imena n’Ingenzi. Dore muri make amateka y’intwari twitegura kwibuka

Urwego rw’Intwari z’Imanzi:

Uru rwego rurimo intwali zitakiriho.
Ingabo itazwi izina: Ingabo itazwi izina yatoranijwe mu zindi ngabo zemeye guhara ubuzima bwazo kandi zitabashije kumenyekana ku buryo bwihariye.

Ingabo itazwi izina ihagarariye ingabo zose z’u Rwanda zaguye ku rugamba cyangwa zashoboraga kurugwaho mu gihe cyahise, icy’ubungubu n’ikizaza zirwanira igihugu.

Imva y’Ingabo Itazwi izina ni ikimenyetso cyo guha icyubahiro gihebuje abana b’u Rwanda bitanze baharanira guhanga no kwagura u Rwanda, ubwigenge n’ubusugire bwarwo.

Major General Rwigema Fred: Yavukiye i Mukiranze mu Karere ka Kamonyi mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo ku wa 10 Mata 1957. Ni mwene Anastasi Kimonyo na Gatarina Mukandilima. Yashakanye na Jeannette Urujeni, basezerana ku wa 20 Kamena 1987. Babyaranye abana babiri, ari bo Gisa Junior na Gisa Teta.

Yatabarutse ku wa 2 Ukwakira 1990 i Kagitumba mu Karere ka Nyagatare mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba, agwa ku rugamba amaze gutangiza intambara yo kubohora u Rwanda.
Major General Rwigema Fred:
Mu bwana bwe, Fred Rwigema yakundaga kwibaza icyatumye bava iwabo i Rwanda n’icyabuze kugira ngo basubireyo, yakundaga gusoma ibitabo by’abaharaniye kubohora ibihugu byabo nka Kwame Nkrumah, Mao-Tse-Tung na Fidèle Castro. Mu wa 1974 ni bwo yiyemeje kureka amashuri asanzwe, ajya muri Tanzaniya gukurikirana imyitozo ya gisirikare na politike.

Mu wa 1976, yayikomereje muri Mozambike, ari kumwe n’abandi mu mutwe wa FRONASA bari hamwe n’indi mitwe bafashwa na Mwalimu Julius Nyerere nka Zanu, Zapu, ANC, KM na FRELIMO.

Mu wa 1979 yari mu bagaba ba FRONASA mu ntambara yavanyeho ubutegetsi bw’igihugu bwa Idi Amin, ayoboye “Mondlane 4th Infantry Column”. Mu wa 1981, hamwe n’abandi basore 27, barimo Abanyarwanda babiri Rwigema Fred na Paul Kagame, yatangiranye na Kaguta Museveni intambara yo kurwanya igitugu cya Obote.

Kuva muri 1985, Fred Rwigema yakomeje kuba umwe mu bayobozi bakuru ba NRA, ishami rya gisirikare ryishyaka National Resistance Movement (NRM) rya Museveni. Aha niho yaboneye umwanya wo gukomeza gutoza intambara Abanyarwanda.

Ataretse kuba Umunyarwanda, Late Fred Rwigema yagiye agira imyanya ikomeye muri NRA nko kuba Uwungirije Umugaba Mukuru w’Ingabo (Deputy Army Commander), Minisitiri wungirije w’Ingabo (Deputy Minister for Defense) n’Umugaba Mukuru w’imirwano (Overall Operations Commander).

Muri iyo mirwano yose yo mu mahanga, Fred Rwigema yari umusirikare nyakuri, w’intangarugero mu mikorere n’imyifatire, muri discipline no kubahiriza amategeko.

Ariko, muri byose yahozaga u Rwanda ku mutima, adahwema kuvuga ko “kubohora u Rwanda ari ngombwa”. Fred Rwigema yaranzwe n’ubupfura n’ubuhanga, kuba umunyakuri, areba kure, azi kwihangana, yubaha bose, ategekesha urugero, akunda umuco wa kinyarwanda n’imikino aba umuhuza w’abantu.Yabaye urugero rwo kwitanga no gukunda igihugu bihebuje.

Urwego rw’Imena

Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa Charles Léon Pierre: Yavukiye i Nyanza, mu Karere ka Nyanza, mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo muri Werurwe 1911.

Ni umwana w’Umwami Yuhi wa IV Musinga na Nyiramavugo Kankazi Redegonde.
Mutara III yimitswe ku ngoma na Guverineri Voisin abifashijwemo na Musenyeri Classe ku wa 16 Ugushyingo 1931, Se Musinga amaze gukurwa ku ngoma kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1931.

Kuwa 15 Ukwakira 1933, yashakanye na Nyiramakomali, batana mu bya 1940, nyuma ku wa 18 Mutarama 1942 ashakana na Rosaliya Gicanda. Aba bagore bose nta n’umwe babyaranye.

Ku wa 17 Ukwakira 1943, yabatijwe na Musenyeri Léon Classe, yitwa Charles Léon Pierre, abyarwa mu batisimu na Guverineri Mukuru wa Kongo Mbiligi na Rwanda-Urundi, Bwana Pierre Ryckmans, yabatijwe hamwe na nyina, umugabekazi Nyiramavugo Kankazi, wiswe Radegonde.

Kuva muri 1929, aho yagizwe umutware wa Nduga na Marangara, kugeza muri za 1950, Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahingwa yakoze politike yo kumvikana na Kiliziya Gatolika na Leta Mbiligi, kugeza n’aho atuye Kirisitu Umwami ingoma z’u Rwanda i Nyanza ku munsi wa Kirisitu Umwami ku wa 27 Ukwakira 1946.

Hagati ya 1950 na 1959, Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yaharaniye guteza imbere imibereho y’Abanyarwanda n’ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda. Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yatanze ubwo yatanze ku wa 25 Nyakanga aguye i Bujumbura mu buryo butunguranye.
Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa Charles Léon Pierre:
Rudahigwa yaranzwe no kurwanya akarengane mu butabera abigaragariza mu Rukiko rw’Umwami no mu mirimo ya buri munsi aho yirirwaga arenganura abaturage cyane cyane abatobato.

Rudahigwa yitaye cyane ku bujijuke bw’Abanyarwanda : ashinga Fonds Mutara, asaba abayezuwiti gushinga Koleji i Gatagara, bayijyana i Bujumbura iba Collège International du Saint Esprit, ashinga Ishuri ry’Abayisilamu ku Ntwari ry’i Nyamirambo, ashinga za Ecoles Laïques, ashinga Ishuri ry’Abenemutara ry’i Kanyanza anohereza Abanyarwanda ba mbere kwiga i Burayi.

Mutara wa III yatangiye impinduramatwara muri politike, akuraho inkuke zakamirwaga Umwami yishakira ize bwite, akuraho imirimo y’agahato yitwaga akazi, akuraho ubuhake abagaragu bagabana na bashebuja, ashaka gukuraho igitabo cy’umusoro cyanditsemo amoko, Ababiligi barabyanga, yanga « kwica Gitera ashaka gukuraho ikibimutera ».

Rudahigwa yahirimbaniye ubumwe n’ubwigenge by’Abanyarwanda ku buryo Abanyarwanda batekereza ko ari byo yazize nka ba Lumumba na Rwagasore.

Michel Rwagasana: Yavukiye i Gitisi na Nyamagana mu Karere ka Ruhango mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo mu wa 1927.

Mu wa 1956, yashakanye na Suzana Nzayire, babyarana abana batatu. Hagati ya 1945 na 1950 yize muri Groupe Scolaire ya Astrida, bitaga shariti, ahakura impamyabumenyi mu by’Ubutegetsi (Diplôme d’Assistant Administratif).

Michel Rwagasana yakoze imirimo inyuranye yose yerekana ko yagirirwaga icyizere kubera ubunyangamugayo n’umwete bye, yabaye umukozi wa Leta Mbirigi i Bujumbura, yabaye umunyamabanga w’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu kuva yajyaho muri 1954, yanabaye umunyamabanga wihariye w’Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa.

Kubera guharanira ubumwe, ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda no kurwanya amacakubiri yabaye umunyamabanga wa mbere w’ishyaka Union Nationale Rwandaise ry’umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ajya mu ntumwa z’u Rwanda zaruhagariraga mu bindi bihugu no muri LONI.

Michel Rwagasana yatanze urugero ruhebuje rwo gushyira imbere inyungu z’igihugu aho kwita ku ze bwite kuko aba yaremeye politike y’irondakoko agahabwa umwanya ukomeye mu Rwanda rwari rutegetswe na mwene Se wabo Gerigori Kayibanda nka Perezida wa Repubulika.

Uwilingiyimana Agatha: Yavukiye i Gikore mu Karere ka Gisagara mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo ku wa 23 Kamena 1953. Ni mwene Ntibashirakandi Yuvenali na Nyirantibangwa Saverina. Yashakanye na Barahira Ignace mu wa 1976, babyarana abana batanu.
Uwilingiyimana Agatha
Yabaye Minisitiri w’Intebe wa mbere w’umugore kuva kuwa 17 Nyakaganga 1993 kugeza kuwa 7 Mata 1994 mu gihe cya Jenoside yishwe n’abari ingabo z’igihugu. Uwilingiyimana Agathe yagize umutima wa kigabo arwanya akarengane k’iringaniza mu gihe yari Minisitiri w’Amashuri Abanza n’Ayisumbuye mu butegetsi bw’irondakarere n’irondakoko bwa Habyarimana.

Yongeye kugaragaza ubwitange bwe buhebuje mu gihe cya Jenoside akomeza iy’ubuyobozi agerageza kugarura ituze mu gihugu cyari kigabijwe n’abicanyi. Ntawashidikanya ko ari umwe mu bagore b’Abanyarwanda baharaniye uburenganzira bw’Umunyarwandakazi.

Félicité Niyitegeka: Yavukiye i Vumbi mu Karere ka Huye mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo mu wa 1934. Ni mwene Sekabwa Simoni na Nyirampabuka Angelina. Yishwe ku wa 21 Mata 1994, mu gihe cya Jenoside kubera ko yanze kwitandukanya n’abo yari yahaye ubuhungiro hamwe na bagenzi be bari muri Centre Saint Pierre ku Gisenyi.

Musaza we Koloneli Nzungize yari yamutumyeho ngo asezerere izo mpunzi maze ave muri icyo Kigo agisijyemo ba nyagupfa. Ni byo yanze mu kubaruwa kuzuye urukundo n’ubutwari yandikiye uwo musaze we.

Mu mibereho ye, Niyitegeko Félicité yerekanye bwa butwari bwa buri munsi mu mirimo umuntu aba ashinzwe, haba mu byerekeye kwigisha no kurera, mu gucunga umutungo w’ibigo yakozemo, haba mu kuyobora abinjiraga mu muryango w’abafasha b’ubutumwa no gufasha abatishoboye. Ibyo byose yabigiranye ubushobozi bwinshi bagenzi be bakabimwubahira kandi bakabimukundira.

Kuba intangarugero yari yarabigize umuco ni cyo cyamufashije mu kwemera kwitangira abari baramugannye ahitamo kwicwa aho kugwa mu ingengabitekerezo y’ivanguramoko.

Abanyeshuri b’i Nyange: Abemezwaho ubutwari ni abari mu cyigo cy’i Nyange mu ijoro ryo kuwa 18 Werurwe 1997 mu ishuri ry’uwa gatandatu n’uwa gatanu igihe abacengezi batera icyo kigo ari abapfuye ari n’abatarapfuye iryo joro.

Abanyeshuri b’i Nyange baharaniye ku mugaragaro amahame y’ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda kugeza aho bamwe babizira babizi, bemera guhara ubuzima bwabo aho kwivangura.

Babereye Abanyarwanda muri rusange n’urubyiruko by’umwihariko, urugero rw’urukundo, rwo kurwanya amacakubiri no kwitangira uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Urwego rw’Ingenzi
Abantu bari muri uru rwego ntibaramenyekana kuko hakirimo gukorwa ubushakashatsi ngo hamenyekana azashyirwamo.

Twifashishijwe inyandiko ya Minisiteri y’Urubyiruko Umuco na Siporo, inyandiko yiswe "INTWARI Z’U RWANDA".

Yanditswe na Eddie Mwerekande/Muhabura.rw


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