Yashyizweho kuri7 October, 2019 | 15:20

Igice cya 2:Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya

Ubumwe bwa repubulika za gisosiyalisiti z’Abasoviyeti (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR cg Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, URSS) zari ihuriro rya Repubulika 15 zunze ubumwe, zihuje ku mugaragaro.

Ubushize twari twasubikiye aha,’Tariki 3 Mata, 1922, "troika" yarateranye yemeza Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin nk’umunyamabanga mukuru w’ishyaka rya Gikomunisiti ry’Abasoviyeti, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union’.

Dukomeje:Mbere y‘uko Lenin Apfa yari yaragize Joseph Stalin umukuru w’istinda ryitaga ku bakozi n’abaciye bugufi, ikintu cyamuhaye imbaraga cyane bigatuma agirirwa n’ikizere cyo kumusimbura. Gusa nyuma byaje gukomera kuko Joseph Stalin ngo yabonaga igihugu nta muvuduko kiriho kuko cyasaga n’ikigendera ku mabwiriza ya benshi, atangiza ubutegetsi bw’igitugu butajenjeka.

Ibu byatumye ndetse akoresha imbaraga mu Kuboza 1927, yirukana Grigory Zinoviev na Leon Trotsky bari mu nama nkuru y’ishyaka ndetse bahise bahunga igihugu. Ibi byatunguye benshi kuko bari bazi ko nta muntu umwe ku giti washoboraga gufata umwanzuro nk’uwo.

Mu 1928, Stalin yatangije gahunda y’imyaka itanu ya mbere ku ngoma ye, avuga ko agiye kubaka ubukungu bwa Gisosiyalisti. Yategetse ko ibintu byose bibyara inyungu byose biba ku ruhande rw’igihugu, bikagengwa na Leta.

Yategetse guhuza ubutaka mu gihugu hose ubuhinzi bugakorwa ku mabwiriza ya Leta Atari bya bindi by’umuntu guhinga ibyo yishakiye. Politiki za Stalin zaje gusa n’izitsindwa mu mirongo imwe n’imwe ndetse mu gihugu haduka amapfa yari akomeye cyane, hapfa ababarirwa mu mamiliyoni, abasigaye bahahuriye n’uruva gusenya kuko bategekwaga gukora imirimo ivunanye ku ngufu. Imyigaragambyo ikomeye mu gihugu yarakomeje.

Stalin mu myaka y’1936-1938, yagize ubwoba bwinshi ko yakorerwa Coup d’etat agahirikwa ku butegetsi. Atera ubwoba bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru afunga ndetse yica bamwe muri babandi bashinze ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti. Stalin yakoze ibitazibagirana mu mateka yica benshi kuko aza no muri batanu bambere mu bamennye amaraso menshi ku Isi.

Mu makuru akomye yaje kuvumburwa nyuma agaragaza ko Stalin yafunze abarenga miliyoni n’igice, muri bo 681,692 bishwe barashwe. Umunyamateka Geoffrey Alan Hosking, Umwongereza w’imyaka 74 kuri ubu, yavuze ko myaka 10 kuva mu 1930 kuzamura, Stalin yamariye ku icumu abatavuga rumwe na we babarirwa hagati ya Miliyoni 10 na 11. Mu buzima bwe bivugwa ko yaba yarahitanye abantu miliyoni 23 mu buzima bwe.

Muri iyo myaka kandi, Stalin yagiranye umubano na USA ku buryo mu 1932 n’1934, ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti bwitabiraga inama ku kugabanya intwaro ku bihugu runaka byabaga bitemerewe kugira intwaro runaka.

Umubano wa USA n’Abasoviyeti wagize imbaraga mu 1933 ubwo mu Ugushyingo, hatorwaga Franklin D. Roosevelt wa munyamerika wayoboye manda nyinshi kuruta abandi, kuko yaguye mu ya kane; yahisemo na we kwemeza ubumwe bw’Abasoviyeti ndetse bemeranya mu iby’ubuhahirane. Muri Nzeri 1934, Abasoviyeti binjiye muri League of Nations, wa muryango wasimbuwe na UN, Umuryango w’abibumbye.

Mu Ukuboza 1936, Stalin yatoresheje itegekonshinga rishya noneho akomeza gutinywa na benshi ndetse ahabwa izina rya Pravda cg se igihangange, umuhanga n’intiti y’isi nshya, cg se inararibonye isumba izindi ku Isi, Umuyobozi w’ikirenga wa Politiki Nkomunisiti.

Nyamara abanyamateka basesenguye inyandiko bavuze ko iryo tegekonshinga nta cyo ryari rivuze ku baturage kuko ryari rikubiyemo amategeko y’icengezamatwara ye. Abasomye igitabo Animal Farm cya George Orwell, izina ry’Ubwanditsi (Amazina nyakuri, Eric Arthur Blair) kigaragaza neza mu buryo bw’amarenga kuko hakoreshwa inyamaswa nyamara bavuga abantu.

Tuzakomeza ntuzacikwe ibikurikiraho.....................

Chief Editor/MUHABURA.RW


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