Yashyizweho kuri28 October, 2019 | 13:06

Igice Cya 4 :Ibintu Wamenya Kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse Igihugu Cy’igihangange Nk’Uburusiya

Ubumwe bwa repubulika za gisosiyalisiti z’Abasoviyeti (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, USSR cg Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques, URSS) zari ihuriro rya Repubulika 15 zunze ubumwe, zihuje ku mugaragaro.

Ubushize twasubikiye ahavuga ko;mu bindi Abasoviyeti bazamukiyemo cyane ari ubushakashatsi mu by’ikoranabuhanga, ubumenyi bw’ikirere n’isanzure muri rusange ndetse no gukora intwaro.

Dukomeje:Nyuma y’intambara ya kabiri y’isi yahaye Abasoviyeti izina binyuze mu ntambara ndetse Abanyamerika bagakura ubuhangange mu bucuruzi mu ntambara, hagombaga kubaho guhigana ubutwari, abari ku ruhande rumwe bagahinduka abakeba ku mugaragaro.

Ibindi bihugu nk’ Ubwongereza, Ubufaransa n’ubudage nta jambo rikomeye kuko byari byaratakarije cyane mu ntambara. Byagombaga gutakambira Amerika yari ikungahaye cyane ngo ibagurize.

Stalin yapfuye tariki 5 Gicurasi 1953 azize Stroke. Abasoviyeti nta muntu bari barateguye wasimbura Stalin bityo banzura kongera kuyoborwa na rya tsinda ry’abayobozi mu nzego zitandukanye troika.

Ntibyatinze Nikita Khrushchev aza kugaragaza imbaraga nyinshi n’ubushobozi ndetse aza anenga cyane politiki za Stalin avuga ko yakoreshaga igitugu gikomeye avuga ko hakwiye politiki iha bose amahirwe angana; iyo Politiki ya Khrushchev ihabwa izina rya de-Stalinization kuko yari igamije guca icyo bitaga igitugu cya Stalin; Politiki ye yagombaga kurandurwa.

Nikita Khrushchev nyuma y’intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi yasaga n’umuntu utarajwe ishinga no gukaza amahame y’ishyaka rya Gikomunisiti, ahubwo yasaga n’urajwe ishinga no kwigarurira ibihugu by’uburayi kuko na we yari afite ijambo nk’umuntu uyoboye igihugu cyitwaye neza mu Ntambara ya Kabiri y’Isi.

Ikindi kandi mu 1956, Igisirikare cy’abasoviyeti cyakoreshejwe mu guhosha imirwano mu kuburizamo imyigaragambyo y’abamaganaga amahame ya Gicoviyeti muri Hungary na Poland.

Mu myaka y’1950 kandi, Ubushinwa bwa Mao Zedong bwabonaga Nikita Khrushchev nk’umuntu usa n’uri kwisubiraho kuko ngo hari amahame ya Karl Marx yasaga n’uri kwirengagiza. Ndetse ngo yasaga n’uwirengagiza ko igihugu ayoboye ari kimwe bisaba gukomeza guhuza ubumwe bwa byose we akibera mu gushaka kwigarurira abandi nyamara n’abo asanganywe atizeye ko bashwana bagatandukana.

Ibi byatumye ibihugu byari bibategeye amaboko nka Albania, Cambodia na Somalia bihitamo kwikoranira n’Ubushinwa aho kwiyunga ku Basoviyeti.

Abasoviyeti bakomeje gukaza iterambere mu ikoranabuhanga, inganda, ubucuruzi n’ibindi batibagiwe ubumenyi bw’ikirere kuko ari bo mu mateka ya muntu babaye aba mbere mu kugeza icyogajuru cya mbere mu isanzure, Sputnik 1, hari tariki 4 Ukwakira, 1957 bizamura uguhangana gukomeye mu bya Politiki, ikoranabuhanga, igisirikare n’ibindi na USA.

Habaye guhigana ubutwari gukomeye ndetse nyuma y’iminsi itanu, uwari Perezida wa USA Eisenhower avuga ijambo abwira rubanda ko rutagomba gucika intege cg ngo rugire ubwoba kuko USA na bo bari biteguye bihagije ku bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’isanzure.

Abasoviyeti bakomeje ubushakashatsi bwabo noneho bohereza Sputnik 2 mu Ugushyingo, tariki 3, 1957. Muri iki cyogajuru bwo bashyizemo ikiremwa, Imbwa yahawe izina rya Laika bareba niba koko ikinyabuzima cyakogoga hanze y’iyi Si kikagumana ubuzima, gusa nyuma y’amasaha make gihagurutse Laika yashizemo umwuka kubera ubushyuhe bukabije.

Abasoviyeti bakomeza kuzamura ubushakashatsi noneho mu 1961 bakora agashya bazamura ikiremwamuntu hanze y’Isi. Umugabo Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin mu cyogajuru Vostok 1 yageze hanze y’iki kirere cyacu bikomeza guha ishema Abasoviyeti. Hari tariki 12 Mata, 1961.

Ntibarekeye aho kuko banabaye aba mbere mu kugeza umugore wa mbere mu kirere cyo hanze y’Isi Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova, yari mu cyogajuru Vostok 6 hari tariki 16 Kamena, 1963. Yamaze iminsi itatu hanze y’isi. Banabaye aba Mbere kugera mu kirere cyo hafi cyane y’ukwezi mu byogajuru Luna 9 mu 1966 na Lunokhod 1 ndetse Lunokhod 2.

Khrushchev yazanye Politiki ye yise Thaw yari ikubiyemo imirongo migari y’ubutegetsi bwe, yari igamije kuzimya burundu iya Stalin wamubanjirije.

Icyagaruye kumwenyura kuri benshi ni uko yahagaritse imirimo y’uburetwa ya Gulag yari yashyizweho na Stalin kuva mu myaka 1930. Thaw yari politiki ngari yo gufungura no kuvugurura umwimerere wa Leta zunze ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti. Ku bwa Khrushchev, iyi politiki yabaye nk’iyambika Abasoviyeti indi sura mu bubanye n’amahanga.

Habaye mavugurura akomeye mu bukungu n’ubuhahairane mpuzamahanga, uburezi n’umuco n’ibindi bihugu, amaserukiramuco mpuzamahanga batangira kuyitabira, basoma ibitabo byo mu bindi bihugu, kureba filimi z’abanyamahanga, amamurika y’iby’ubugeni ku rwego mpuzamahanga, imbyino, imideri no kwitabira amarushanwa atandukanye mpuzamahanga, ibintu Stalin atahaga agaciro na mba.

N’ubwo yahuye n’imbogamizi z’abategetsi benshi bari bashyigikiye Stalin na Politiki ye yari mu marembera, ishyaka rye, Soviet Communist Party ntiryigeze ricika intege.

Yakomeje impinduka mu buhinzi n’imiyoborere gusa bigeze mu 1962, ni bwo hazamutse ikibazo gikaze cy’ibisasu kirimbuzi yari yemeye ko bijya gushyirwa muri Cuba byitegeye Washington bikaza kubonwa n’abatasi ba USA bigateza ubwoba n’impuha zikomeye.

Nikita yemeranije na USA gukurayo izo missile Abanyamerika na bo bakura izo bari bafite muri Turkiya n’Ubutaliyani. Gusa uyu mwumvikano na Amerika wamugabanirije ikizere n’ubukaka bwe, abayobozi bakuru mu ishyaka batangira kumunenga ndetse baza no kumukura ku butegetsi asa n’ugambaniwe n’abo mu nkoramutima ze hari tariki 14 Ukwakira 1964.

Tuzakomeza ntuzacikwe ibikurikiraho.....................

Ibice byabaje:<Igice cya3 :Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya
<Igice cya 2:Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya
< Ibintu wamenya kuri Leta z’Abasoviyeti zibarutse igihugu cy’igihangange nk’Uburusiya[Igice cya Mbere]

AMATORA: Muraho neza bavandi! Ni mwinjire kuri iyi Link http://dja2019.rgb.rw nimwagera aho babaza ikinyamakuru mukunda gusoma mwandike Muhabura.rw ubwo muraba mugihaye amahirwe yo kwitwara neza mu marushanwa.

Murakoze.

Richard Ruhumuriza/MUHABURA.RW


Tanga igitecyerezo

Ibitekerezo


Tanga igitekerezo


Izindi nkuru

Inkuru zikunzwe